“Casin-a sola”, ballata lirica piemontese

“Casina sola” or “Cassin-a sola” is a lyric ballad from the Canavese (Turin, Italy) in the repertoire of the Bajolese Choir collected in 1972 by Amerigo Vigliermo from the testimony of Guido Camosso (1921 – 1999) of Rueglio (To): melancholy song of a peasant girl that recalls her love, because she misses and needs to have him near.
“Casina sola” o “Cassin-a sola” è una ballata lirica proveniente dal Canavese (Torino) dal repertorio del Coro Bajolese, raccolta nel 1972 da Amerigo Vigliermo dalla testimonianza di Guido Camosso (1921 – 1999) di Rueglio (To): malinconico canto di sirena della contadinella che richiama il fidanzatino perchè sente la sua mancanza e ha bisogno di averlo vicino.

Coro Bajolese ( Norma Betteto Coello voce solista)
with the introduction of Amerigo Vigliermo so Guido Camosso told : a message entrusted to the wind, for tell her lover that she was alone and was waiting for him . In a few lines and with a persuasive melody, she communicates to us the feeling of solitude, the one that Vigliermo defines as “the worst weapon of poverty”
con l’introduzione di Amerigo Vigliermo così come raccontava Guido Camosso: un messaggio d’amore che una ragazza affidava al vento, affinché lo portasse al suo innamorato per dirgli che lei era sola e lo stava aspettando. In poche righe e con una melodia suadente, si trasmette tutto il sentimento della solitudine, quella che Vigliermo definisce “l’arma più cattiva della povertà”

This version contains only the first three stanzas, Renato Scagliola presents the ballad with a touch of malice, understood as a warning of the green light for the “gentil galante”.
Questa versione riporta solo le prime tre strofe, Renato Scagliola presenta la ballata con una punta di malizia, intesa come un avvertimento di via libera per il “gentil galante“.
I Cantambanchi
, live dallo speciale Rai del 1979
Renato Scagliola (voce), Franco Contardo (voce e tamburello), Giancarlo Perempruner (voce, strumenti autocostruiti), Laura Ennas (voce, chitarra), Claudio Perelli (voce, chitarra, tastiere), Francesco Bruni (voce, chitarra, percussioni), Davide Scagliola (batteria, percussioni), Claudio Zanon (flauto traverso). 

Ombra Gaja & Laura Conti in “A l’arbat dël sol” (2001) la versione è priva della IV strofa

And yet the song is more than melancholy, it’s a lament, and the woman who sings is a widow who waits in vain for the return of her love ((who probably died in the war).
Eppure il canto è più che malinconico, è un lamento e la donna che canta è una vedova che attende invano il ritorno del suo amore (probabilmente morto in guerra)

Laura Conti & Maurizio Verna in La stagione dei gusci di noce 2012


I
Son sì dësconsolà
ënt una cassina sola (1).
Quänd gnërà-lo ‘l mè amor
ch’a vėn-a consolemi?
II
S’i l’hon sëntì na vos
travers na colina lontana,
s’a fussa ‘l mè amor
ch’a vėn da la cassina.
III
S’a fussa ‘l mè amor
a gnërìa pa cantando
ma gnërìa con gli occhi a bass (2)
e ‘l cuore sospirando.
IV
S’a fussa ‘l mè gentil galant (3)
s’a l’è gentil di vita (4)
guardèji (vardèi) sul capel
c’ha jà la margherita
V
E maledet col dì,
quell’ora che mi son nata,
trovarmi sempre sì
per esser consolata.
Traduzione italiano di Cattia Salto
I
Sono così addolorata
da sola in una cascina.
Quando arriverà il mio amore
a consolarmi?
II
Ho sentito una voce
da una collina lontana
che sia il mio amore
che viene verso la cascina?
III
Se fosse il mio amore
non verrebbe mica cantando,
ma verrebbe con gli occhi bassi
sospirando nel cuore.
IV
Se fosse il mio innamorato
sarebbe elegante
guardate sul cappello
che ha una margherita
V
Maledetto quel giorno,
quell’ora che sono nata
per trovarmi sempre così
bisognosa di conforto.

NOTE
1) the meaning is ambivalent “alone in a farmhouse” but it could also mean “in an isolated farmhouse”. The farmstead is a typical Piedmontese agricultural structure today called “rustic” and subject to renovations for B & Bs, prestigious estates, farmhouses: in the farmhouse lived several families or seasonal workers, and usually the owner with his family lived in a separate facility. On the ground floor there were the kitchen and the dining room. The productive part was separated from the large courtyard, it could be used for the breeding of farm animals, or for the storage of agricultural products and their transformation, a stable with barn for the shelter of cows and for horses. The largest were a miniature village, the small ones only a cottage
il significato è ambivalente “da sola in una cascina” ma potrebbe anche voler dire “in una cascina isolata”. La cascina è una tipica struttura agricola piemontese oggi detta casale o rustico e soggetta a ristrutturazioni per B&B, prestigiose Tenute, agriturismo: in cascina abitavano più famiglie o lavoratori stagionali, nella zona abitativa trovavano posto gli alloggi dei braccianti mentre di solito il tenutario o il proprietario con la sua famiglia viveva in una struttura a parte. Al piano terra erano sistemate la cucina e la sala da pranzo. La parte produttiva era separata dal grande cortile, poteva essere adibita all’allevamento di animali da cortile, o allo stoccaggio dei prodotti agricoli e la loro trasformazione, una stalla con fienile per il ricovero di mucche e per i cavalli. Le più grandi erano un villaggio in miniatura, le più piccole poco più grandi di un capanno
2) the girl projects her own impatience and loneliness into her boyfriend la ragazza proietta nel fidanzatino la sua stessa impazienza e solitudine
3) gentil galant nella forma sostantivo-aggettivo indica in origine un giovane nobiluomo
4) gentil di vita cioè di gusti raffinati, eleganti
  

English translation Cattia Salto
I
I’m so sad
alone in a farmhouse (1).
When will my love come
to console me?
II
I heard a voice
from a distant hill
could it be my love
who comes to the farmhouse?
III
If he was my lover
he wouldn’t come singing,
but he would come with eyes facing down
sighing in the heart.
IV
If he was my lover
he would be well dress
look at his hat
if it has a daisy
V
Damn that day,
that hour I was born
to live so
with needing consolation

LINK
https://www.reteitalianaculturapopolare.org/archivio-partecipato/item/244-casina-sola.html
https://www.blogfoolk.com/2014/06/amerigo-vigliermo-e-il-coro-bajolese.html
http://www.priulieverlucca.it/catalogo/scheda/Becana-vita-sana/157

http://www.italiandoc.it/area/public/wid/DTCS/video.htm

Johnnie Cope

From “Drums of Autumn” of the Outlander saga written by Diana Gabaldon chapter 4.
In the future Roger sings many popular airs at the Celtic Festival in New England (Outlander Season 4, episode 3)
And here’s one from the ’45,” he said. “This one is from the famous battle of Prestonpans, at which the Highland Army of Charles Stuart routed a much greater English force, under the command of General Jonathan Cope.” 
[In “Tamburi d’Autunno” della saga “La Straniera” di Diana Gabaldon, capitolo 4.
Nel futuro Roger canta molti brani popolari al Festival Celtico nel New England (Outlander stagione 4, terzo episodio)
“E adesso eccovene una del ’45” annunciò. “Viene dalla famosa battaglia di Prestonpans, nella quale l’Esercito delle Highlands di Charlie Stuart sbaragliò le forze inglesi, assai più numerose, sotto il comando del Generale Jonathan Cope”

“Johnnie Cope” is a jacobite song related to the Battle of Prestonpans (a location not far from Edinburgh – Scotland) composed by Adam Skirving . The Scots remember it as the battle of Gladsmuir because of an old prophecy that the pretender to the throne of Scotland would be victorious to Gladsmuir.
“Johnnie Cope” è una canzone giacobita riferita alla battaglia di Prestonpans (una località poco  lontano da Edimburgo – Scozia) composta da Adam Skirving. Gli scozzesi la ricordano come la battaglia di Gladsmuir per via di una vecchia profezia secondo la quale il pretendente al trono di Scozia sarebbe stato vittorioso a Gladsmuir.

charlie-letterA lot of textual versions: almost all begin with the description of a correspondence between John Cope and Charlie Stuart (the Young Pretender), obviously invented, to create a tasty affair between them and they end with Cope terrified at the sight of the Highlanders charge!
The refrain taunts Cope giving him a Sleeping Beauty , the sarcastic verses and the cheerful melody have brought this piece to the present day, still played by many soloists and musical groups.
Le versioni testuali sono molteplici, anche se quasi tutte iniziano con  la descrizione di un carteggio tra John Cope e Charlie Stuart (il  Giovane Pretendente), ovviamente inventato, per creare un gustoso siparietto  tra i due protagonisti e si concludono con Cope terrorizzato alla vista della carica degli Highlander!
Il ritornello schernisce Cope dandogli del  bell’addormentato, i versi sarcastici e la melodia allegra, hanno fatto arrivare fino ai nostri giorni questo brano, ancora interpretato da molti  solisti e gruppi musicali.

TO THE TUNES ( LE MELODIE )

We have three distinct tunes as well as many textual versions, 
[Del brano ci sono almeno tre melodie distinte come pure  molte versioni testuali]
in “Companion” (Oswald, 1759, ix. 11)
in “Scots Tunes” (McLean, c. 1772, 23)
in “Airs” (Aird, 1783, ii. No. J2)
in “SMM”(Johnson, 1790)

The melody is the traditional march of the Scots Guards Regiment
La melodia è diventa la sveglia tradizionale delle Scots Guards Regiment 

Joseph Ritson version

A vigorous interpretation of a very young Andy Stewart ( I, II, IV, V, VI)
Una gagliarda interpretazione di un Andy Stewart giovanissimo 

Sparkling interpretation of Alaistair McDonald and an amazing arrangement with the banjo.
Spumeggiante  interpretazione di Alaistair McDonald e uno  strepitoso arrangiamento con il banjo.

The Tannahill  Weavers in Tannahill Weavers IV – 1981
the legendary “weavers of Tannahill” combined the melody with “The Atholl Highlanders” (here in jig version). The text has small variations in the choice of words [i mitici “tessitori di Tannahill” hanno accoppiato la melodia con “The Atholl Highlanders”  (qui in versione giga). Il testo ha delle piccole variazioni nella scelta delle parole]

Planxty in Cold Blow And The Rainy Night

And the Corries version with bodhran

Joseph Ritson, 1794
I
Cope sent a challenge frae Dunbar (1)
Sayin “Charlie (2) meet me an’ ye daur (3)
An’ I’ll learn ye the airt o’ war
If ye’ll meet me in the morning.”
Chorus
O Hey! Johnnie Cope are ye waukin’ (4) yet?
Or are your drums a-beating yet?
If ye were waukin’ I wad wait
Tae gang tae the coals (5) in the morning.
II
When Charlie looked the letter upon
He drew his sword and scabbard (6) from
“Come, follow me, my merry men
And we’ll meet Johnnie Cope in the morning.”
III
“Now Johnnie, be as good as your word
Come, let us try baith fire and sword
And dinna flee like a frichted bird
That’s chased frae its nest i’ the morning.”
IV
When Johnnie Cope he heard o’ this
He thocht it wouldna be a miss
Tae hae a horse in readiness
Tae flee awa in the morning.
V
Fye now, Johnnie, get up an’ rin
The Highland bagpipes mak’ a din (7)
It’s better tae sleep in a hale skin
For it will be a bluidie morning (8).
VI
When Johnnie Cope tae Dunbar cam
They speired (9) at him, “Where’s a’ your men?”
“The de’il confound me gin I ken
For I left them a’ in the morning.”
VII
Now Johnnie, troth ye werena blate (10)
Tae come wi’ news o’ your ain defeat
And leave your men in sic (11) a strait
Sae early in the morning.
VIII
In faith, quo Johnnie, I got sic flegs (12)
Wi’ their claymores an’ philabegs (13
Gin (14) I face them again, de’il brak my legs
So I wish you a’ good morning.
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
I
Cope lanciò una sfida da Dunbar 
dicendo “Charlie incontratemi se osate,
e io vi insegnerò l’arte della guerra
se m’affronterete all’alba”
Ritornello
Ehi Johnny Cope sei già sveglio ?
e i tuoi tamburi rullano di già?
Se sei sveglio aspetterò prima
di andare nella miniera di carbone stamattina!
II
Quando Charlie lesse la lettera
estrasse la spada dal fodero
“Venite, seguitemi, miei valorosi
e affronteremo Johnny Cope all’alba”
III [Charlie]
“Ora Johnny, siate di parola,
venite, sfidiamoci con il moschetto e la spada
e non fuggite come un uccellino timoroso
che è cacciato dal nido all’alba”
IV
Quando Johnny Cope lo sentì
pensò che non sarebbe stato sbagliato
avere un cavallo pronto
per fuggire via all’alba.
V
Bene, allora Johnny alzati e scappa
le cornamuse scozzesi si avvicinano
è meglio dormire in una pelle sana
che essere bucherellato all’alba
VI
Quando Johnny Cope a Dunbar ritornò,
gli venne chiesto “Dove sono i vostri uomini?”
“Lo sa il Diavolo se lo so,
perchè li ho lasciati tutti all’alba”
VII
Non ti vergogni Johnny
di dover annunciare la tua sconfitta
e di aver lasciato i tuoi uomini nei guai
così di mattina presto?
VIII
“In fede” disse Johnny “mi è venuto un tale spavento per i loro spadoni e gonnellini,
che sia dannato se li affronterò di nuovo,
così auguro a tutti un buon giorno”

French translation
NOTE
1) Dunbar is a town on the south-east coast of Scotland about forty kilometers from Edinburgh, where Cope’s troops landed while the jacobites entered Edinburgh
Dunbar  è la cittadina della costa sud-est della Scozia a una quarantina di km da  Edimburgo, dove sbarcarono gli inglesi  mentre le truppe ribelli entravano in Edimburgo
2) Charles Stuart, the Young Pretender
3) daur =dare [sfidare]
4) wauking=waking 
5) 
The witness is a miner of the nearby coal mines who stopped for a few minutes to watch the British escape! [Il testimone è un minatore delle vicine miniere di carbone che si è fermato qualche minuto per assistere alla fuga degli inglesi e dice ironicamente a Cope: sbrigati ad alzarti che ho fretta di andare al lavoro!]
6) The phrase pronounced by the Bonnie Prince before the battle  “My friends I have flung away the scabbard!” [frase pronunciata dal Bonnie Prince prima della battaglia “Amici miei, ho gettato il fodero!“]
7)  “make their noise” [letteralmente fanno rumore]
8) bluidie morning= bloody morning [letteralmente  “perchè sarà una mattina sanguinosa (dannata)”]
9) speired=asked. The losses suffered by the British were heavy in the face of only thirty deaths in the Scottish camp. [Le perdite subite dagli inglesi furono pesanti a fronte di solo trenta morti nello schieramento scozzese.]
10) blate=shy, [timido]
11) sic=such
12) flegs=frights, [paure]
13) philabegs=kilts. The famous  highlanders charge!  [La famosa carica degli highlanders]
14) gin= if [Cope risponde “e se li incontrassi di nuovo, che il diavolo mi prenda”]

ATHOLL HIGHLANDERS

La melodia è stra-conosciuta, suonata come marcia o come jig. Atholl si trova nel cuore delle Highlands scozzesi e deriva il nome dal gaelico “ath Fodla” ovvero Nuova Irlanda conseguente alle invasioni nell’isola delle tribù irlandesi nel VII sec. Gli Atholl Highlanders sono un reggimento di fanteria scozzese alle dipendenze private del Duca di Atholl (tutt’ora effettivo a livello cerimoniale)
da The Fiddler’s  Companion
The name Athole (or Atholl) derives from  the Gaelic ath Fodla,  generally translated as New Ireland, and stems from the first invasion of the  northern land by the Irish tribe the Scots in the 7th century (Matthews,  1972). The tune, described sometimes as a Scottish warpipes  melody, is dedicated to the private army of the Duke of Atholl,  the last private army still legally existing (albeit on a token level) in the  British Isles (Boys of the Lough). The original Athole Highlanders (and the ones associated with the  tune) were the old 77th Highland Regiment, raised in 1778 and commanded by  Colonel James Murray. Musically, the tune contains a characteristic melodic  cliché in Scottish music in which a figure is followed by the same or a  related figure on the triad one tone below or above (Emmerson,  1971).

Il generale George Murray (1694-1760) che seguì la rivolta giacobita del 1745 era il sesto figlio di John Murray duca di Atholl.
The Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders

ROBERT BURNS: Sir John Cope Trode The North Right Far

“Sir John Cope Trode The North Right Far”, the Robert Burns version is collected in the Scots Musical Museum.
Burns recorded a short note on this piece in his commentary on the ‘Museum’ ‘The air was the tune of an old song, of which I have heard some verses, but now only remember the title, which was ‘Will ye go to the coals in the morning”. (from here)
“Sir John Cope Trode The North Right Far” è la versione di Robert Burns riportata nello Scots Musical Museum, nelle note Burns così commenta: “l’aria è la melodia di una vecchia canzone, di cui ho sentito alcuni versi, ma ora ricordo solo il titolo, che era ‘Will ye go to the coals in the morning”

Jamie McMenemy

Paul Kenna

Scots Musical Museum, 1790
I
Sir John Cope trode the north right far, 
Yet ne’er a rebel he cam naur,

Until he landed at Dunbar
Right early in a morning.
II
He wrote a challenge for Dunbar,

Come fight me Charlie an ye daur;
If it be not by the chance of war
I’ll give you a merry morning.
III
When Charlie look’d the letter upon

He drew his sword and scabbard from-
“So Heaven restore to me my own,
I’ll meet you, Cope, in the morning.”
Chorus
Hey Johnie Cope are ye wauking yet,
Or are ye sleeping I would wit:
O haste ye get up for the drums do beat,
Of fye Cope rise in the morning.

IV
Cope swore with many a bloody word
That he would fight them gun and sword,
But he fled frae his nest like an ill scar’d bird, And Johnie he took wing in the morning.

V
It was upon an afternoon,

Sir Johnie march’d to Preston town;
He says, “My lads come lean you down, 
And we’ll fight the boys in the morning.”
VI

But when he saw the Highland lads
Wi’tartan trews (1) and white cokauds,
Wi’ swords and guns and rungs and gauds,
O Johnie he took wing in the morning.
[chorus]

VII
On the morrow when he did rise,

He look’d between him and the skies;
He saw them wi’ their naked thighs,
Which fear’d him in the morning.
VIII
O then he flew into Dunbar,

Crying for a man of war;
He thought to have pass’d for a rustic tar,
And gotten awa in the morning.
IX
Sir Johnie into Berwick rade,

Just as the devil had been his guide;
Gien him the warld he would na stay’d
To foughten the boys in the morning.
[chorus]
X
Says the Berwickers unto Sir John,

O what’s become of all your men,
In faith, says he, I dinna ken,
I left them a’ this morning.
XI
ays Lord Mark Kerr (2), ye are na blate,

To bring us the news o’ your ain defeat;
I think you deserve the back o’ the gate (3),
Get out o’ my sight this morning.
[chorus]

traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Sir John Cope prese la rotta per il Nord,
tuttavia mai nessun ribelle gli si avvicinò
finchè sbarcò a Dunbar
proprio all’alba
II
Egli scrisse una sfida da Dunbar 
“Charlie venite a combattere in duello se osate;
e se non fosse per il rischio della guerra
vi darei un Buon Giorno”
III
Quando Charlie lesse la lettera
estrasse la spada dal fodero
“Così il Cielo restituirà i miei diritti,
ti affronterò, Cope all’alba!”
Ritornello
Ehi Johnny Cope vorrei sapere
se sei già sveglio
o se stai dormendo,
affrettati ad alzarti che i tamburi rimbombano, vergogna, Cope, alzati è mattino!
IV
Cope giurò con parole di sangue,
che li avrebbe combattuti con il moschetto e la spada, ma fuggì dal suo nido come un uccellino timoroso e Johnny prese il volo all’alba
V
Era nel pomeriggio
che Sir John marciò su Preston
dicendo “Riposatevi miei compagni
e combatteremo i ribelli al mattino”
VI
Ma quando vide gli Highlander
con i pantaloni tartan e le bianche coccarde,
con le spade e moschetti e bastoni e pugnali
O Johnny prese il volo all’alba.
Ritornello
VII
Il giorno seguente quando si alzò
guardò tra lui e il cielo;
e li vide con le cosce nude
che lo spaventarono all’alba.
VIII
Oh allora si precipitò a Dunbar
gridando per i rinforzi,
credeva di essere preso per uno zoticone
a scappare all’aba
IX
Sir John corse a Berwick
come se avesse il diavolo alle calcagna;
non sarebbe rimasto per niente al mondo
a combattere i ribelli all’alba
Ritornello
X
Dicono quelli di Berwick a Sir John 
“Dove sono i vostri uomini?”
“Lo sa il Diavolo se lo so,
perchè li ho lasciati tutti stamattina”
XI
Dice Lord Mark Kerr ” Voi non vi vergognate
di portarci la notizia della propria sconfitta?
Credo vi meritiate un punizione,
fuori dalla mia vista stamattina”
Ritornello

English translation
NOTE
1) tartan trousers
2) Cope had to report his defeat to the Berwick garrison commander, Lord Mark Kerr. He was court-martialed but exonerated from the accusation of having himself fled the battlefield.
Cope ha dovuto riferire la sua sconfitta al comandante della guarnigione di Berwick, Lord Mark Kerr. Fu sottoposto a corte marziale ma assolto dall’accusa di essere scappato dal campo di battaglia.
3) letteralmente “meritarsi il retro della porta” 

http://chrsouchon.free.fr/johnnie.htm
https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=111922

https://museu.ms/collection/object/55921/volume-iii-song-234-pages-242-and-243-johnie-cope-scanned-from-the-1853-edition-of-the-scots-musical?pUnitId=1134

http://singout.org/2013/01/29/robert-burns-and-the-art-of-rebellion-part-one-hey-johnie/
https://thesession.org/tunes/107

https://burnsc21.glasgow.ac.uk/johnie-cope/

Brave Lewie Roy

Only two verses for this Jacobite song written by Robert Tannahill, R. A. Smith attributed the fragment to him in his “Harp of Renfrewshire “, 1819.
Due sole strofe per questo canto giacobita scritto da Robert Tannahill è stato R. A. Smith ad attribuire il frammento all’amico nel suo “Harp of Renfrewshire”, 1819.


A HIGHLAND MOOR ( Sutton Palmer)

Nick Keir in The Complete Songs of Robert Tannahill, Vol II, 2010 (I, II, I, II, I, II, I, II)


I
Brave Lewie Roy was the flower of our Highlandmen, 
Tall as the oak on the lofty Benvoirlich, [1]
Fleet as the light-bounding tenants of Fillan-glen [2], 
Dearer than life to his lovely neen voiuch. [3] 
II
Lone was his biding, the cave of his hiding [4]
When forc’d to retire with our gallant Prince Charlie, [5]
Tho manly and fearless, his bold heart was cheerless 
Away from the lady he aye lov’d so dearly.
Traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Il bel Lewie Roy era il fiore dei nostri Highlander
alto come una quercia sul maestoso Benvoirlich
sinuoso come i chiari affluenti nella Valle di Fillan
alla sua bella innamorata più caro della vita 
II
Solitaria era la sua residenza, la grotta del suo nascondiglio, quando fu costretto alla ritirata al seguito del nostro valoroso principe Carlo,
anche se virile e senza paura,
il suo cuore ardito era triste,
lontano dalla dama che sempre amava tanto

NOTE
Alexander Rodger aggiunse due ulteriori strofe
1) Benvoirlich is a high mountain in the Parish of Comrie (Perthshire), in the neighbourhood of the Braes of Balquhither. Benvoirlich’s top is seen from the Castlehill of Edinburgh [Benvoirlich è un’alta montagna nel paese di Comrie, melle vicinanze del  Braes of Balquhither, la cima è visibile dal Castlehill di Edimburgo]
2) Fillan Glen,—named after one of the saints of the Culdees, Saint Fillan,—is also situated in the Parish of Comrie [ Dal nome di San Fillan, uno dei Culdei (dal gaelico Céilí Délett. “Compagni di Dio”) i primi druidi-cristiani che vivevano da eremiti o in comunità monastiche prima dell’anno mille, sempre nei pressi di Comrie]
3) Neen voiuch= nighean choidheach (scots gaelic),—a beautiful maiden
4) the then twenty-six-year-old, the Bonnie Prince managed to escape and remain hidden for several months, protected by his loyalists, despite the British patrols and the price on his head! Charles found many hiding places and support in the Hebrides but it was a dangerous game of hide-and-seek. see more
il Bonnie Prince allora ventiseienne, riuscì a fuggire e a restare nascosto per parecchi mesi, protetto dai suoi fedelissimi, nonostante i pattugliamenti inglesi e la taglia sulla sua testa. Charles trovò nelle isole Ebridi molti nascondigli e sostegno ma era un pericoloso gioco a rimpiattino (continua).
5) Charles James Edward Stewart, born 20th December, 1720, called the Prince of Wales, &c., was the eldest son of James Francis Edward, Chevalier de Saint George, Pretender of 1715, calling himself King James VIII. The Prince landed in Scotland on 25th July, 1745 ; and on lst August, 1745, a proclamation offering a reward of £30,000 was issued for his apprehension, notwithstanding he set up the Standard of Rebellion on 16th August, with a following. After several skirmishes between the Rebels and the Royalists, the great and memorable Battle of Culloden was fought on Wednesday, 16th April, 1746, when the Royalists were victorious, and the Rebels dispersed. The Prince finally retired from Scotland on 20th September, 1746; and, on the death of his father on 30th December, 1765, he styled himself King Charles III.,—his chequered life was ended at Rome on 31st January, 1788 (from here)
Charles James Edward Stewart, nato il 20 dicembre 1720, chiamato il Principe di Galles, & c., era il primogenito di James Francis Edward, Chevalier de Saint George, il Pretendente del 1715, che si auto-proclamò Re Giacomo VIII. Il Principe sbarcò in Scozia il 25 luglio 1745; e il 1 agosto 1745, per la sua cattura, fu emesso un proclama che offriva una ricompensa di  30.000 sterline, ciononostante innalzò il Vessillo della Ribellione il 16 agosto, con un seguito. Dopo numerose scaramucce tra ribelli e lealisti, la grande e memorabile battaglia di Culloden fu combattuta mercoledì 16 aprile 1746, quando i lealisti furono vittoriosi  e i ribelli si dispersero. Il Principe si ritirò definitivamente dalla Scozia il 20 settembre 1746; e, alla morte di suo padre il 30 dicembre 1765, si chiamò re Carlo III. – La sua vita movimentata si concluse a Roma il 31 gennaio 1788

LINK
http://www.grianpress.com/Tannahill/TANNAHILL’S%20SONGS%2027.htm
https://digital.nls.uk/special-collections-of-printed-music/archive/91355283

http://clan-macnab.com/saint-fillan-the-man-and-the-myth/

The Highland Laddie: I Hae Been At Crookieden

A series of lyrics are grouped under the title “Hieland laddie/lassie” with the same melody (a traditional Scottish air) titled “If thou’t play me fair play” or “The Lass of Livingston” both sea shanties that jacobite songs. Also with the same title we find this “Bonie Laddie, Highland Laddie” aka “I ha’e been at Crookieden”.
Una serie di testi sono raggruppati sotto il titolo “Hieland laddie” con la stessa melodia (tradizionale) dal titolo “If thou’t play me fair play” o “The Lass of Livingston” sia come sea shanty che come canzoni giacobite. Sempre con lo stesso titolo troviamo questa “Bonie Laddie, Highland Laddie” o “I ha’e been at Crookieden

The tune is in Rutherford’s “Country Dances”, 1749, as “The new highland laddie”; it is in Oswald’s “Companion”, 1754, vi. 1, entitled “The old Highland laddie” as marked by Burns on the MS. of his verses.
La melodia è in “Country Dances” di Rutherford, 1749, come “The new highland laddie”; è nel “Companion” di Oswald, 1754, vi. 1, intitolato “The old Highland laddie” come indicato da Burns nel manoscritto dei suoi versi.

A JACOBITE SONG OF THE ’45

The text is a fragment of a Jacobite ballad published in “Jacobite Relics”, 1810, so Hogg writes “Is highly popular, and sung in many different ways. It appears, from the numberless copies I have got, that the song had been very short at first, and that parts had been added, now and then, by different hands, until some of the most common editions appear rather like a medley than a regular ballad. This set may be received as the most perfect, all the good verses being in it, and a kind of uniformity throughout. I have been told the song was originally composed by an itinerant ballad-singer, a man of great renown in that profession, ycleped ” mussel-mou’ed Charlie”[Charles Lesly (1687-1792)] see here for complete lyrics
Il testo è un frammento di una ballata giacobita pubblicata in “Jacobite Relics”, 1810, così Hogg scrive “È molto popolare e cantata in molti modi diversi. Dalle innumerevoli copie che ho ottenuto, sembra che la canzone fosse stata molto breve all’inizio, e che le parti fossero state aggiunte, di tanto in tanto, da mani diverse, fino a quando alcune delle edizioni più comuni appaiono come un miscuglio piuttosto che una ballata fissa. Possiamo considerare questo set come il più completo, essendoci tutti i versi più belli e omogenei. Mi è stato detto che la canzone fu originariamente composta da un cantante di ballate itinerante, un uomo di grande fama in quella professione,”mussel-mou’ed Charlie” [Charles Lesly (1687-1792)] continua

ROBERT BURNS VERSION

ritratto di Robert BurnsA couple of lines have been written by Robert Burns with satirical intent and published in the “Scots Musical Museum” Volume IV, 1792
Robert Riddell, a very good friend of Burns, wrote ‘This Jacobite song was written as a satyre on William Augustus Duke of Cumberland’. Although the tragedy of Culloden had been played out many years before the publication of the ‘Museum’, Jacobite sympathies and politics would still have been prominent during Burns’s generation’s childhood. This song is thought to have been accompanied by the melody ‘Highland Laddie’.
(from SMM here)
Un paio di versi sono stati scritti da Robert Burns con intento satirico e pubblicati nello “Scots Musical Museum” Volume IV, 1792
Robert Riddell, un ottimo amico di Burns, ha scritto “Questa canzone giacobita è stata scritta come satira su William Augustus Duca di Cumberland”. Sebbene la tragedia di Culloden avesse avuto atto molti anni prima della pubblicazione del “Museo”, le simpatie politiche giacobita avrebbero continuato a essere prominenti durante l’infanzia della generazione di Burns. Si pensa che questa canzone sia stata accompagnata dalla melodia ‘Highland Laddie’.

Susan Rode Morris


I
I ha(v)e been at Crookieden – 
My bonie laddie (1), Highland laddie!
Viewing Willie  and his men- 
There our faes (2) that burnt and slew – 
There at last they gat their due – 
II
Satan sits in his black neuk – 
Breaking sticks to roast the Duke – 
The bloody monster gae (5) a yell – 
And loud the laugh gaed (6) round a’ Hell- 
traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Sono stato a Crookieden [all’inferno]
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
a vedere Willy e i suoi uomini – dove i nostri nemici che incendiarono e uccisero, finalmente hanno quello che si meritano.
II
Satana siede in un angolo oscuro
a rompere i pali per arrostire il Duca,
il mostro sanguinario cacciò un urlo
e l’Inferno scoppiò a ridere.

NOTE
french translation here
1) handsome lad
2) foes
3) got
4) corner
5) gave
6) went

ROBERT TANNAHIILL VERSION: Bonnie Heilan’ laddie

This Jacobite song of the ’45 first appeared in 1822 in Smith’s Scotish Minstrel.
Questo canto giacobita del ’45 compare nello Scotish Minstrel di R.A. Smith, 1822

Jim Malcolm in The Complete Songs of Robert Tannahill Volume II 2010


I
Will ye gang to Inverness,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie?
There ye ‘ll see the Hielan’ dress,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie
II
Philabeg and bonnet blue,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie,
For the lad that wears the trew,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie
III
Geordie sits in Charlie’s chair,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie;
Had I my will he ‘d no’ sit there,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie
IV
Ne’er reflect on sorrows past,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie,
Charlie will be king at last,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie
V
An’ tho’ now our sky may lower,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie,
It ‘s only like an April shower,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie
VI
Time an’ tide come roun’ to a’,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie,
An’ upstart pride will get a fa’,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie
VII
Keep up your heart for Charlie’s fight,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie;
An’ come what may, ye ‘ve done what ‘s right,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan’ laddie
traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Andrai a Inverness
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland?
là vedrai la tenuta delle Highland
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
II
Kilt e berretto blu
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
per i ragazzi che indossano le braghe
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
III
Giorgio siede sul trono di Carlo
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
dipendesse da me non ci starebbe,
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
IV
mai crogiolarsi nel dolore del passato,
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
Carlo diventerà Re alla fine
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
V
E sebbene ora il cielo pianga
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
E’ solo pioggia d’Aprile
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
VI
Il tempo è tiranno e passa per tutti (1)
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
e la superbia del nuovo arrivato precipiterà
mio bel ragazzo delle Highland
VII
Mantieni i tuo cuore sulla lotta di Carlo
bel ragazzo delle Highland
e qualunque cosa accada, hai fatto ciò che è giusto bel ragazzo delle Highland

NOTE
1) nel senso di “cambia idea su tutti”

The Tannies make a mix between the two Robert versions!
I Tannies fanno un mix tra le versioni dei due Robert

The Tannahill Weavers – Greenwood Side/Highland Laddie/Pattie in “Mermaid’s song” 2006 (c’è un disturbo audio nella parte centrale, ma dura poco)


I
Where have you been all the day,
bonnie laddie, highland laddie
Saw ye him that’s far away,
bonnie laddie, highland laddie
On his head a bonnet blue,
Tartan plaid and highland trews (1).
II
I ha’e been at Crookieden(2),
Watching Wullie(3) and his men,
There our foes that burnt and slew,
There at last they got their due.
III
Satan sits in yon black neuk,
Breaking sticks tae roast the duke,
The bluidie monster gied a yell,
Loud the lach gaed roon’ a’ Hell(4),
IV
Geordie (5) sits in Cherlie’s chair,
Had I my wish he’d no’ sit there,
Ne’er reflect on sorrows past,
Cherlie will be king at last
Traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Dove sei stato tutto il giorno
bel ragazzo delle Highland
A vederlo, lui che è così lontano?
bel ragazzo delle Highland
Un berretto blu in testa; mantello tartan e braghe delle Highlands?
II
Sono stato a Crookieden a guardare
Guglielmo e la sua armata, dove i nostri nemici che incendiarono e uccisero,
finalmente hanno quello che si meritano.
III
Satana siede in un angolo buio
a rompere i pali per arrostire il Duca,
il mostro sanguinario cacciò un urlo
e l’Inferno scoppiò a ridere.
IV
Giorgio siede sul trono di Carlo,
dipendesse da me non ci starebbe,
mai crogiolarsi nel dolore del passato,
Carlo diventerà Re alla fine

NOTE
1) The Bonny Prince, Charles Edward Stuart the pretender to the throne of Scotland who, young and handsome in his traditional Scottish dress, managed to exert great fascination on the Highlanders! 
Here is described the Highland dress before the battle of Culloden: the blue wool bonnet worn flat across the head (with white cockade because jacobite one), loose-fitting thigh-length white linen shirt, which was also considered underwear and was often used as a nightshirt, the great kilt (belted plaid) and the trews (the word originates from the Gaelic for trousers) were short tartan trousers, made of wool and worn with thigh-high socks. On his top half, the man would have worn a waistcoat and a woollen coat or jacket. Sporran and belt were the complement of the kilt both to hold it at the sides and to carry various objects. The dress was completed by a “neckerchief” tied at the neck several times (a gift from his girlfriend) which also offered a a little protection against blades. At the foot you could wear brogues, solid shoes with buckles, riding boots or the typical soft leather gillies (open sandal-like shoes that tied up the calf). The Royal Dress Act of 1746, which was introduced several months after the Battle of Culloden, severely limited the use of the Highland dress (tartan). Certain groups of people, such as the nobles, the men who served in the Highland regiments and women, however, were exempted from the ban.
il “Bel Carletto”, Carlo Edoardo Stuart, il pretendente al trono di Scozia che, giovane e prestante nel suo abito tradizionale scozzese riuscì ad esercitare un grande fascino sugli Highlanders!
Qui viene descritta la tenuta di un Highlander prima della battaglia di Culloden: il berretto blu di lana dalla forma appiattita (con coccarda bianca perchè seguaci della casa Stuart), una camicia di lino bianca lunga fino alla coscia (che diventava camicia da notte) il grande kilt (belted plaid) e i trews, dei braghettoni corti di lana scozzesi indossati con calzini alti fino alla coscia. Sopra alla camicia considerata a tutti gli effetti un indumento intimo si portava un gilet e una giacca di lana. Sporran e cintura erano il complemento del kilt sia per tenerlo fisso ai fianchi che per portare vari oggetti. Completava la tenuta un “cravattino” legato al collo più volte (regalo della fidanzata) che offriva anche una minima protezione contro il taglio di una spada. Ai piedi si potevano portare delle solide scarpe con fibbia, stivali o le tipiche gillies in pelle morbida (scarpe aperte simili a sandali che legavano il polpaccio).  

Il Royal Dress Act del 1746, che fu introdotto diversi mesi dopo la Battaglia di Culloden, limitò notevolmente l’uso del vestito (tartan) delle Highland. Certi gruppi di persone, come i nobili, gli uomini che prestavano servizio nei reggimenti delle Highland e le donne, erano però esentati dal divieto.
The Dress Act stated that ‘That from and after the first day of August, one thousand seven hundred and forty seven, no man or boy, within that part of Great Briton called Scotland, other than shall be employed as officers and soldiers in his Majesty’s forces, shall on any pretence whatsoever, wear or put on the clothes commonly called Highland Clothes (that is to say) the plaid, philibeg, or little kilt, trowse, shoulder belts, or any part whatsoever of what peculiarly belongs to the highland garb; and that no tartan, or partly-coloured plaid or stuff shall be used for great coats, or for upper coats’  Anyone found breaking these rules could be imprisoned for six months, and, if they were caught again, they could be sent to a plantation overseas for seven years. (from here)
The Dress Act proclamava “A partire dal primo giorno di agosto, 1747, nessun uomo o ragazzo, all’interno di quella parte della Gran Bretagna chiamato Scozia, tranne chi sarà impiegato come ufficiale e soldato nell’esercito di Sua Maestà dovrà, con qualsiasi scusa, indossare o mettere i vestiti comunemente chiamati Vestiti delle Highland (vale a dire) il plaid, philibeg o il piccolo gonnellino ,trowse, le cinture a tracolla o qualsiasi parte di ciò che appartiene in modo particolare all’abito degli altipiani ; e che nessun tartan, o mantella a scacchi deve essere usato per giacche o gilet. Chiunque sia trovato in violazione di queste regole potrebbe essere imprigionato per sei mesi e, se fosse catturato nuovamente, potrebbe essere deportato ai lavori forzati oltremare per sette anni.
2) “Crooked den”= Hell  (evokes a “Culloden” for the Whigs)
3) William Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765) Culloden’s butcher is described as a bloodthirsty monster who suffers the right punishment in hell
Guglielmo Duca di Cumberland (1721-1765) il macellaio di Culloden è descritto come un mostro sanguinario che subisce la giusta punizione all’inferno
4) letteralmente “forte il riso correva per l’Inferno”
5) George II Augustus of Hanover [Giorgio II Augusto di Hannover]
6) Charles died in Rome in 1788, and since then the Jacobites were branded as nostalgic reactionaries, but they resurrected from the literary Romanticism (with Sir Walter Scott at the head) that kept the Jacobite aspirations alive, especially in Scotland, a period that saw a flourish of songs, handed down from generation to generation, inflaming the minds.
[Charles morì a Roma nel 1788, e da allora i giacobiti furono bollati come reazionari nostalgici, ma resuscitati dal Romanticismo letterario (con Sir Walter Scott in testa) che mantenne vive le aspirazioni giacobite, specialmente in Scozia, periodo che vide un rifiorire di canti che si tramandavano di generazione in generazione, infiammando gli animi. ] 

For all this Jacobite heritage associated with the Highland laddie, even the songs with the same subject, even if its do not contain explicit references to the rising of 1945, are often classified as jacobite songs.
Un po’ per tutto questo retaggio giacobita associato all’ Highland laddie, anche le canzoni con lo stesso soggetto pur non contenenti riferimenti espliciti alla rivolta del ’45 sono spesso classificate come canzoni giacobite.

LINK
https://terreceltiche.altervista.org/war-songs-anti-war-songs/you-jacobites-by-name/
http://chrsouchon.free.fr/crookie.htm
http://www.burnsscotland.com/items/v/volume-iv,-song-332,-page-342-bonie-laddie-highland-laddie.aspx

http://www.grianpress.com/Tannahill/TANNAHILL’S%20SONGS%2028C.htm

I sergenti reclutatori nelle campagne britanniche del 700-800

Read the post in English

L’arruolamento nelle armate britanniche era a base volontaria, così nel 1700 e fino alla metà del 1800, giravano per le campagne i sergenti reclutatori accompagnati da un giovane tamburino: erano bravi a convincere i giovanotti già un po’ alticci che si trovavano nelle locande, a prendere  il famigerato scellino del Re (King’s Shilling).
Facevano leva sui disagiati, i mezzadri sfrattati e ridotti a lavorare come braccianti giornalieri, coloro che erano senza un mestiere e che vedevano nell’arruolamento l’alternativa per non morir di fame. I più ingenui si lasciavano vincere dal fascino dell’avventura o semplicemente erano troppo ubriachi per pensare lucidamente!

the-recruiting-sergeant
John Collet (1725-1780) The Recruiting Sergeant

Twa recruitin’ sergeants

La canzone “Twa recruitin’ sergeants” viene dalla tradizione scozzese ed è quasi un documento storico della vita nelle bothy farm : così i reclutatori facevano breccia nella vita dei disperati, i giovani ragazzi che conducevano una vita grama. L’origine della canzone è fatta risalire al 1700 ed è ritornata popolare negli anni 1960 con la versione di Jeannie Robertson.
A.L. Lloyd ha evidenziato che l’opera di Farquhar, “The Recruiting Officer” (1706), ha aiutato a diffondere ‘Over the Hills and Far Away’. La canzone è stata spesso cantata durante le guerre napoleoniche. E’ sopravvissuta per due secoli e mezzo tra i cantanti folk, in decrescendo, fino a quando sembrava si fosse limitata al nord-est scozzese “. Poi una variante tornò in auge nelle città inglesi con il titolo “Two Recruiting Sergeants from the Black Watch” (da Mudcat qui)

La melodia è ovviamente un’allegra marcetta, perfetta per entusiasmare i malcapitati..

Gaberlunzie (strofe I, II, III, V)

Schooner Fare (strofe I, II, IV, V)

Adam Raeburn & Friends

A Parcel o’ Rogues (strofe I, II, IV, V)


I
Twa recruiting sergeants came frae the Black Watch(1)
Tae markets and fairs, some recruits for tae catch.
But a’ that they ‘listed was forty and twa:
Enlist my bonnie laddie an’ come awa.
Chorus:
And it’s over the mountain and over the Main,
Through Gibralter, to France and Spain(2).
Pit a feather tae your bonnet, and a kilt aboon your knee,
Enlist my bonnie laddie and come awa with me.
II
Oh laddie ye dinna ken the danger that yer in.
If yer horses was to fleg, and yer owsen was to rin,(3)
This greedy old farmer, he wouldna pay yer fee.
Sae list my bonnie laddie and come awa wi’ me
III(4)
With your tattie porin’s(5) and yer meal(6) and kale(7),
Yer soor sowan’ soorin’s(8) and yer ill-brewed ale,
Yer buttermilk(9), yer whey(10), and yer breid fired raw.
Sae list my bonnie laddie and come awa.
IV
And its into the barn and out o’ the byre,
This ole farmer, he thinks ye never tire.
It’s slavery a’ yer life, a life o’ low degree.
Sae list my bonnie laddie and come awa with me
V
O laddie if ye’ve got a sweetheart an’ a bairn,
Ye’ll easily get rid o’ that ill-spun yarn(11).
Twa rattles o’ the drum(12), aye and that’ll pay it a’.
Sae list my bonnie laddie and come awa.
Traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Due sergenti reclutatori vennero dai Black Watch
per mercati e fiere, a prendere delle reclute.
ma ne arruolarono 42:
“Arruolati mio bel ragazzo e vieni via”
Chorus:
Per le montagne e oltre il mare,
attraverso Gibilterra, per la Francia e la Spagna(1).
metti una piuma sul tuo berretto(2) e un gonnellino sopra il ginocchio,
arruolati mio bel giovanotto e vieni via con me
II
Oh ragazzo non sai il pericolo al quale vai incontro
se i tuoi cavalli si spaventano e i buoi si mettono a correre(3)
questo taccagno di un vecchio contadino, potrebbe non pagarti il tuo stipendio
così arruolati mio bel giovanotto e vieni via con me me
III(4)
Con la tua acqua delle patate, il tuo porridge e il cavolo,
la tua brodaglia scadente di avena e la birra mal fermentata
il tuo latticello e il siero del latte, e il pane mezzo crudo.
così arruolati mio bel giovanotto e vieni via con me me.
IV
Dentro e fuori il fienile e la stalla,
questo vecchio contadino pensa che non ti stancherai mai
la tua è una vita da schiavo, una vita di degradazione.
così arruolati mio bel giovanotto e vieni via con me me.
V
O ragazzo se avessi una fidanzata o un bambino,
potresti facilmente sbarazzarti di quella brutta storia, due rullate di tamburo(12), si, ti ripagheranno di tutto
così arruolati mio bel giovanotto e vieni via

NOTE
Le frasi del sergente si commentano da sole
1) citazione da “Over the hills and far away“: ovviamente non si fa cenno alle indie occidentali e alle varie colonie dell’impero!!
2) la divisa dei Black Watch: plaid scozzese nero e verde, gilè e giacca rossi e berretto blu, moschetto, baionetta, spadone e pugnale. Nel 1795 adottarono il pennacchio rosso (in inglese red hackle) per il loro berretto.

3) i sergenti si rivolgevano ai cavallanti e aratori stagionali delle grandi fattorie scozzesi
4) sicuramente gli animali della fattoria erano nutriti meglio dei suoi lavoranti! Il sergente sapeva come parlare alla “pancia” del suo pubblico: uno degli istinti primari quello del cibo!
L’elenco di cibi insipidi era lo standard per i lavoratori agricoli. Ord in “Songs And Ballads” dice “Molte canzoni si riferiscono al cibo fornito dall’agricoltore ai suoi braccianti, che, in molti casi, era di pessima qualità”. Ord continua: “Se la colazione era scarsa, la cena non era migliore:
il pane era spesso,la farinata d’avena scarsa, / la zuppa era una brodaglia
Ho inseguito l’orzo nel piatto, / E ce n’erano tre chicchi.
(tradotto da qui).
5) Tattie pourin’s=l’acqua di bollitura delle patate
6) Meal: avena
7) kale=varietà di cavolo
8) sourin’s sowans: si prepara con gli scarti d’avena messi a macerare e fatti fermentare e infine bollendo il liquido per ottenere un blando sostituto della birra
9) Buttermilk – il latticello che si forma nella preparazione del burro come prodotto secondario di scarto
10) Whey: siero del latte che si forma nella preparazione del formaggio, dopo la cagliata.
11) modo di dire: spin a yarn= raccontare una storia
12) la gloria della battaglia

LA VERSIONE DI TERRANOVA

Bob Hallett del gruppo folk-rock canadese Great Big Sea ha riscritto il testo della tradizione scozzese “Twa recruitin’ sergeants” in memoria dell’Esercito Terranoviano, annientato durante la battaglia della Somme (Francia) durante la Prima Grande Guerra. Il 1 Luglio è il Giorno della Memoria nell’Isola di Terranova e Labrador in ricordo del bagno di sangue e della vita dei suoi giovani figli uccisi a Beaumont Hamel, il primo giorno della Battaglia.
All’epoca della grande guerra Terranova era una colonia inglese e anche i Terranoviani fecero la loro parte inviando 500 uomini (il Newfoundland Regiment), che accorsero su base volontaria all’appello del loro Re (e il re li omaggiò graziosamente dell’appellativo Royal dopo la guerra, come sentito ringraziamento per il loro sacrificio)

Non voglio soffermarmi nella rievocazione della battaglia, credo che basti la poesia di Ungaretti “Soldati”
“Si sta come
d’autunno
sugli alberi
le foglie”

Great Big Sea in “Play” 1997 Il video è un omaggio a tutti i soldati di Terranova


I
Two recruiting sergeants came to the CLB (1),
for the sons of the merchants (2), to join the Blue Puttees (3)
So in the bow all the hands enlisted, five hundred young men
Enlist you Newfoundlanders and come follow me
II
They crossed the broad Atlantic in the brave Florizel,
And on the sands of Suvla (4), they entered into hell
And on those bloody beaches, the first of them fell
[Chorus]
So it’s over the mountains, and over the sea
Come brave Newfoundlanders and join the Blue Puttees
You’ll fight the Hun in Flanders, and at Galipoli
Enlist you Newfoundlanders and come follow me
III
Then the call came from London, for the last July drive
To the trenches with the regiment, prepare yourselves to die
The roll call next morning, just a handful survived (4).
Enlist you Newfoundlanders and come follow me
IV
The stone men on Water Street still cry for the day
When the pride of the city went marching away
A thousand men slaughtered, to hear the King say
Enlist you Newfoundlanders and come follow me
Traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Due sergenti reclutatori vennero dal CLB
perché i figli dei mercanti si unissero ai Blue Puttees
così nel salone tutte le braccia arruolarono, 500 giovani uomini:
“Arruolatevi Terranoviani e seguitemi”
II
Attraversarono l’Atlantico sull’ardita Florizel
e sulla spiaggia di Sulva  atterrarono all’inferno
e su quelle spiagge insanguinate, i primi tra di loro caddero
Chorus:
Per le montagne e oltre il mare,
venite valorosi Terranoviani e unitevi ai Blue Puttees
combatterete gli Unni nelle Fiandre e a Gallipoli,
arruolatevi Terranoviani e venite via con me
III
Poi la chiamata venne da Londra per i restanti, la campagna di Luglio
“sulle trincee con il reggimento, preparatevi a morire”
All’appello del giorno dopo solo una manciata risposero
“Arruolatevi Terranoviani e seguitemi”
IV
I negozianti di Water Street ancora piangono quel giorno
quando l’orgoglio della città se ne andò marciando
un migliaio di uomini macellati per ascoltare il re dire
“Arruolatevi Terranoviani e seguitemi”

NOTE
1) gruppo paramilitare che costituì il nucleo del nascente Esercito
2) pescatori e contadini servivano alla giovane colonia
3) ovvero il Royal Newfoundland Regiment il soprannome Blue Puttees venne dalle pezze blu con cui si fasciavano i polpacci, dette fasce mollettiere, una parola perduta, una moda lanciata proprio nella prima guerra mondiale, in cui praticamente tutti i soldati degli eserciti schierati nel conflitto indossavano le fasce mollettiere (qui)
4) quelli che rimasero dopo la campagna del 1915 che vennero inglobati in un Reggimento di 800 uomini, mandato al macello alle trincee del Somme il 1° Luglio 1916

FONTI
https://terreceltiche.altervista.org/bothy-ballads/
http://ontanomagico.altervista.org/arthur-mcbride.htm
http://magnius159.deviantart.com/journal/The-Black-Watch-328946633
http://www.queensroyalsurreys.org.uk/1661to1966/recruiting/recruiting.html
http://bwrhrrg.com/reggimento-e-dintorni/
http://www.antiwarsongs.org/canzone.php?id=41351&lang=it
http://www.rampantscotland.com/songs/blsongs_recruiting.htm
http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=28076
http://www.mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=28076#347502
http://sangstories.webs.com/twarecruitinsairgeants.htm
http://www.tobarandualchais.co.uk/en/fullrecord/40388/6;jsessionid=2331DA5243CD6F62BF17E5DAD70783CE
https://www.fresnostate.edu/folklore/ballads/GrD1077.html

Follow me up to Carlow

Leggi in italiano

The text of “Follow me up to Carlow” was written in the nineteenth century by the Irish poet Patrick Joseph McCall (1861 – 1919) and published in 1899 in the “Erinn Songs” with the title “Marching Song of Feagh MacHugh”.
Referring to the Fiach McHugh O’Byrne clan chief, the song is full of characters and events that span a period of 20 years from 1572 to 1592.

McCall’s intent is to light the minds of the nationalists of his time with even too detailed historical references on a distant epoch, full of fierce opposition to English domination. 16th century Ireland was only partly under English control (the Pale around Dublin) and the power of the clans was still very strong. They were however clans of local importance who changed their covenants according to convenience by fighting each other, against or together with the British. In the Tudor era Ireland was considered a frontier land, still inhabited by exotic barbarians.
front1

FIACH MCHUGH O’BYRNE

The land of the O’Byrne clan was in a strategic position in the county of Wicklow and in particular between the mountains barricaded in strongholds and control posts from which rapid and lethal raids started in the Pale. The clan managed to survive through raids of cattle, rivalries and alliances with the other clans and acts of submission to the British crown, until Fiach assumed the command and took a close opposition to the British government with the open rebellion of 1580 that broke out throughout the Leinster . In the same period the rebellion was reignited also in the South of Munster (known as the second rebellion of Desmond)

The new Lieutenant Arthur Gray baron of Wilton that was sent to quell the rebellion with a large contingent, certainly gave no proof of intelligence: totally unprepared to face the guerrilla tactics, he decided to draw out the O’Byrne clan, marching in the heart of the county of Wicklow, the mountains! Fiach had retired to Ballinacor, in the Glenmalure valley, (the land of the Ranelaghs), and managed to ambush Gray, forcing him to a disastrous retreat to the Pale.

glenmalure

Follow me up to Carlow

The melody was taken from McCall himself by “The Firebrand of the Mountains,” a march from the O’Byrne clan heard in 1887 during a musical evening in Wexford County. It is not clear, however, if this historical memory was a reconstruction in retrospect to give a touch of color! It is very similar to the jig “Sweets of May” (first two parts) and also it is a dance codified by the Gaelic League.

“Follow me up to Carlow” (also sung as “Follow me down to Carlow”) was taken over by Christy Moore in the 1960s and re-proposed and popularized with the Irish group Planxty; recently he is played by many celtic-rock bands or “barbarian” formations with bagpipes and drums.

Planxty

Fine Crowd

The High Kings live

FOLLOW ME UP TO CARLOW
I
Lift Mac Cahir Óg(1) your face,
broodin’ o’er the old disgrace
That Black Fitzwilliam(2) stormed your place,
and drove you to the Fern(3)
Gray(4) said victory was sure,
soon the firebrand(5) he’d secure
Until he met at Glenmalure(6)
with Fiach McHugh O’Byrne
CHORUS
Curse and swear, Lord Kildare(7),
Fiach(8) will do what Fiach will dare
Now Fitzwilliam have a care,
fallen is your star low(9)
Up with halberd, out with sword,
on we go for, by the Lord
Fiach McHugh has given the word
“Follow me up to Carlow!”(10)
II
See the swords at Glen Imaal (11),
flashin’ o’er the English Pale(12)
See all the children of the Gael,
beneath O’Byrne’s banner
Rooster of a fighting stock,
would you let a Saxon cock
Crow out upon an Irish Rock,
fly up and teach him manners.
III
From Tassagart (11) to Clonmore (11),
flows a stream of Saxon gore
How great is Rory Óg O’More(13)
at sending loons to Hades
White(14) is sick, Gray(15) is fled,
now for Black Fitzwilliam’s head
We’ll send it over, dripping red,
to Liza(16) and her ladies
II
See the swords at Glen Imaal (11),
flashin’ o’er the English Pale(12)
See all the children of the Gael,
beneath O’Byrne’s banner
Rooster of a fighting stock,
would you let a Saxon cock
Crow out upon an Irish Rock,
fly up and teach him manners.
III
From Tassagart (11) to Clonmore (11),
flows a stream of Saxon gore
How great is Rory Óg O’More(13)
at sending loons to Hades
White(14) is sick, Gray(15) is fled,
now for Black Fitzwilliam’s head
We’ll send it over, dripping red,
to Liza(16) and her ladies

NOTES
1) Brian MacCahir Cavanagh married Elinor sister of Feagh MacHugh. In 1572 Fiach and Brian were implicated in the murder of a landowner related to Sir Nicholas White Seneschal (military governor) of the Queen at Wexford.
2) William Fitzwilliam “Lord Deputy” of Ireland, the representative of the English Crown who left office in 1575
3) In 1572 Brian MacCahir and his family were deprived of their properties donated to supporters of the British crown
4) Arthur Gray de Wilton became in 1580 new Lieutenant of Ireland
5) appellation with which he was called Feach MacHugh O’Byrne
6) Glenmalure Valley: valley in the Wicklow mountains about twenty kilometers east of the town of Wicklow, where the battle of 1580 occurred that saw the defeat of the English: the Irish clans ambushed the English army commanded by Arthur Wilton Gray made up of 3000 men
7) In 1594 the sons of Feach attacked and burned the house of Pierce Fitzgerald sheriff of Kildare, as a result Feach was proclaimed a traitor and he become a wanted crimunal
8) Feach in Irish means Raven
9) William Fitzwilliam returned to Ireland in 1588 once again with the title of Lieutenant, but in 1592 he was accused of corruption
10) Carlow is both a city and a county: the town was chosen more to rhyme than to recall a battle that actually took place: it is more generally an exhortation to take up arms against the British. Undoubtedly, the song made her famous.
11) Glen Imael, Tassagart and Clonmore are strongholds in Wicklow County
12) English Pale are the counties around Dublin controlled by the British. The phrase “Beyond the Pale” meant a dangerous place
13) Rory the young son of Rory O’More, brother of Feagh MacHugh, killed in 1578
14) Sir Nicholas White Seneschal of Wexford fell seriously ill in the early 1590s, shortly thereafter fell into disgrace with the Queen and was executed.
15) in the original version the character referred to is Sir Ralph Lane but is more commonly replaced by Arthur Gray who had left the country in 1582
16) Elizabeth I. Actually it was Feach’s head to be sent to the queen!
The new viceroy Sir William Russell managed to capture Fiach McHugh O’Byrne in May 1597, Feach’s head remained impaled on the gates of Dublin Castle.

LINKS
http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=52454&page=2
http://thesession.org/tunes/1583
http://thesession.org/tunes/10645
http://www.irishmusicdaily.com/follow-me-up-to-carlow
http://www.clannobyrne.com/glenmalure.html
http://neverfeltbetter.wordpress.com/2012/09/25/irelands-wars-the-battle-of-glenmalure/
http://www.blogofmanly.com/2012/09/17/heroes-feach-mchugh-obyrne/
http://www.doyle.com.au/chiefs.html

Concealed death: french, breton and occitan ballads

Leggi in Italiano

 Concealed death

LORD OLAF AND THE ELVES 
SCANDINAVIAN VARIANTS
BRITISH AND AMERICAN VERSIONS
FRENCH VERSIONS
ITALIAN VERSION

Professor Child collected the summary of a version from Brittany that is likely to be the link between the Scandinavian variants and the south of Europe ones.

BRETON TALE: The Count Nann

The count Nann and his wife were married at the respective ages of thirteen and twelve. The next year a son was born. The young husband asked the countess if she had a fancy for anything. She said that she should like a bit of game, and he took his lance and went to the wood. At the entrance of the wood he met a fairy (a dwarf in other versions). The fairy said that she had long been looking for him. “Now that I have met you, you must marry me.” “Marry you? Not I. I am married already.” “Choose either to die in three days or to lie sick in bed seven (three in other versions) years” and then die. He would rather die in three days, for his wife is very young, and would suffer greatly. On reaching home the young man called to his mother to make his bed; he should never get up again. He recounted his meeting with the fairy, and begged that his wife might not be informed of his death.
The countess asked: “What has happened to my husband that he doesn’t come home to see me?” She was told that he had gone to the wood to get her something. “Why were the men-servants weeping?” The best horse had been drowned in bathing him. She said they were not to weep; others should be brought. “Why were the maids weeping?” Linen had been lost in washing. They must not weep the loss would be supplied. “Why are the priests chanting (or the bells tolling)?” A poor person whom they had lodged had died in the night. “What dress should she wear for her churching – red or blue?” The custom had come in of wearing black.
On arriving at the church she saw that the earth had been disturbed; why was this? “I can no longer conceal it”, said her mother-in-law: “Your husband is dead.” “Take my keys, take care of my son; I will stay with his father.” (from here)

We find the same story in the French medieval ballad Le Roi Renaud which in the Occitan language becomes Comte Arnau (Arnau is Renaud). The rediscovery of the ballad of medieval origin takes place in full romantic fervor from the nationalisms and the antiquarian taste of traditional songs. I therefore refer to the excellent treatment of Christian Souchon for all the interweaving and in-depth analysis on the subject of Concealed Death  in  France (here).

Breton Ballad: An Aotrou Nann hag ar Gorrigan

In Brittany the ballad “Aotroù Nann” (Sir Nann and the Fairy) is circulated in dozens of versions but the pattern is always identical: the meeting with the fairy, the refusal of the knight, the choice to die slowly among the toments or by a fulminant death and the concealment of knight death to his young bride about to give birth. The rest are details varied according to singer taste. (see here and here).

Gwennyn from Avalon 2017  (track 8)
(under review)

FRENCH VERSION: LE ROI RENAUD

The French version sends king back home from war, wounded to death. (no enchanted forest and fairy here!) To his queen they concealed his death until his burial,probably because they do not want to create complications in the imminence of childbirth. However, after giving birth and finally getting out of bed to go to mass (and after a kilometer ballad full of concealment) The ballad ends tragically with queen who invokes death and immediately the earth opens up from under her feet swallowing her.

Even today the ballad is sung by folk singers  with medieval-inspired arrangements.
Pierre Bensusan
Le Poème Harmonique from Aux marches du palais


I
Le roi Renaud de guerre vint
tenant ses tripes dans ses mains.
Sa mère était sur le créneau
qui vit venir son fils Renaud.
II
– Renaud, Renaud, réjouis-toi!
Ta femme est accouché d’un roi!
– Ni de ma femme ni du fils
je ne saurais me réjouir.
III
Allez ma mère, allez devant,
faites-moi faire un beau lit blanc.
Guère de temps n’y resterai:
à la minuit trépasserai.
IV
Mais faites-le moi faire ici-bas
que l’accouchée n’l’entende pas.
Et quand ce vint sur la minuit,
le roi Renaud rendit l’esprit..
V
Il ne fut pas le matin jour
tous les valets pleuraient très tous.
Il ne fut temps de déjeuner
que les servantes ont pleuré.
VI
– Mais dites-moi, mère, m’amie,
que pleurent nos valets ici ?
– Ma fille, en lavant nos chevaux
ont laissé noyer le plus beau.
VII
– Oh pourquoi donc, mère m’amie,
pour un cheval pleurer ainsi ?
Quand Renaud reviendra,
plus beaux chevaux ramènera.
VIII
– Et dites-moi, mère m’amie,
que pleurent nos servantes ici ?
– Ma fille, en lavant nos linceuls
ont laissé aller le plus neuf.
XIX
– Oh pourquoi donc, mère m’amie,
pour un linceul pleurer ainsi ?
Quand Renaud reviendra,
plus beau linceul ramènera.
X
– Ah, dites-moi, mère m’amie,
Qu’est-ce que j’entends cogner ici ?
– Ma fille, ce sont les charpentiers
Qui raccommodent le plancher.
XI
– Ah ! Dites-moi, mère m’amie,
Pourquoi les cloches sonnent ici ?
– Ma fille, c’est la procession
Qui sort pour les rogations.  (1)
XII
– Mais, dites-moi, mère m’amie,
C’est que j’entends chanter ici ?
– Ma fille, c’est la procession
Qui fait le tour de la maison.
XIII
Or quand ce fut passé huit jours,
A voulut faire ses atours.
Or, quand ce fut pour relever,
à la messe  (2) elle voulut aller,
XIV
– Mais dites-moi, mère m’amie,
quel habit mettrai-je aujourd’hui ?
– Mettez le blanc, mettez le gris,
mettez le noir pour mieux choisir.
XV
– Mais dites-moi, mère m’amie,
qu’est-ce que ce noir-là signifie
– A femme relèvant d’enfant,
le noir lui est bien plus séant.
XVI
Mais quand elles fut parmi les champs,
Trois pastoureaux allaient disant :
– Voici la femme du seignour
Que l’on enterra l’autre jour !
XVII
– Ah ! Dites-moi, mère m’amie,
Que disent ces pastoureaux-ci ?
– Il disent de presser le pas,
Ou que la messe n’aura pas.
XVIII
Or quand elle fut dans l’église entrée,
un cierge on lui a présenté.
Aperçoit en s’agenouillant
la terre fraîche sous son banc.
XIX
– Ah ! Dites-moi, mère m’amie,
pourquoi la terre est rafraîchie?
– Ma fille, ne puis plus vous celer,
Renaud est mort et enterré.
XX
Puisque le roi Renaud est mort,
voici la clé (3) de mon trésor.
Voici mes bagues et mes joyaux,
prenez bien soin du fils Renaud.
XXI
Terre, ouvre-toi, terre fends-toi,
que j’aille avec Renaud, mon roi!
Terre s’ouvrit, et se fendit,
et ci fut la belle engloutie.
English translation*
I
King Renaud comes back from the war,
Holding his guts in his hands.
His mother who was on the battlement, Saw her son Renaud come.
II
– Renaud, Renaud, cheer you up!
Your wife has given birth to a king!
– Neither for my wife, nor for my son,
May I cheer up.
III
Go, my mother, hurry up.
Have a fine white bed set ready for me;
I have short time to remain here:
By midnight I shall pass away.
IV
But have it done it down here
So my wife in childbirth will not hear!
And when midnight came,
King Renaud gave back his soul.
V
Morning had not broken yet,
And soon the valets were all weeping.
And even before breakfast,
All the maidservants have wept.
VI
– Tell me my mother dear,
What are our valets weeping for?
– My daughter, while washing our horses,
They let the finest drown.
VII
– And why, mother dear,
Such a weeping for a horse?
When King Renaud comes back,
He will bring finer horses.
VIII
– Ah! Tell me, my mother dear,
why do our women servants weep?
– Dear, while washing our linen sheets
they have lost the newest.
XIX
-And why, mother dear,
should they weep so for a linen sheet?
When King Renaud returns,
he will buy finer linen sheets.
X
– Ah! Tell me, my mother dear,
What are those beatings I hear?
– My daughter, it’s the carpenters
Repairing the floor.
XI
– Ah! Tell me, mother dear
What do I hear ringing here?
– My daughter, it is the procession,
Going out for the rogations.(1).
XII
– Ah! Tell me, mother dear,
What are the priests singing here?
– My daughter, it is the procession,
Turning round the house.
XIII
And when eight days had passed,
She wanted to dress up to the nines.
And when she could get up
She wanted to go to the Mass.
XIV
-Ah! Tell me mother dear,
Which dress shall I wear today?
– Wear the white, wear the grey,
Wear the black to choose best
XV
– Ah! Tell me mother dear,
What does this black mean?
-To a woman who has given birth to a child,
Black is the most convenient.
XVI
But when they were amidst the fields
Three shepherds were saying:
-Look at the wife of that lord
Who was buried the other day!
XVII
-Ah! Tell me mother dear,
What are those shepherds saying?
_ They say to hurry up,
Otherwise we’ll miss the Mass.
XVIII
When she stepped inside the church
She was given a church candle.
he realized, while kneeling,
That the earth was fresh under her bench.
XIX
– Ah, Tell me, mother dear
Why is the earth fresh here?
– My daughter, I cannot hide it any longer:
Renaud is dead and buried.
XX
Since King Renaud is dead,
Here are the keys to my treasure.
Take my rings and my jewels,
Feed well Renaud’s son!
XXI
Earth, open up! Earth, burst open!
Let me join Renaud, my king!
Earth opened up, earth burst open,
And the beauty was swallowed.

NOTES
* from here and here
1) the rogations were processional chants mixed with prayers with which they went to bless the fields in the three days before Ascension (continued)
2) at one time woman was considered impure after childbirth and she could return to the community only after 40 days. The ballad reflects an archaic conception of woman in marriage: her only role is to generate descent and her destiny is to follow her husband in death. In reality, in the Middle Ages, high-ranking widows were conveniently remarried or sended in a convent.
3) the married woman was entrusted with house keys, pantry and wardrobe and they hanged them on the belt as a hallmark of their rank
4) holy ground for church

OCCITAN VERSION: LO COMTE ARNAUD

We realize immediately that death does not occur because of an evil mermaid or fairy. The war is responsible for the tragedy. The tale becomes more realistic and universal and stresses on the dramatisation by focusing more on the concealed death.
Arnau joins in a war, he is wounded and comes back at the beginning of summer (on Saint John’s day). He asks to have his bed made and after his last conversation with his mother he announces his death. Once the magical elements have been disregarded and substituted by a more realistic view of life, the second part can continue by adapting the version from Brittany to the story. The most important difference is that the hero’s wife has just given birth to a child. That makes the story more dramatic and the concealed death creates a sympathetic suspense in the audience until it is revealed. This is a common trait in most European variants. Another curiosity found in most versions concerns the dress she will have to wear while going to church: it must be black! It is basically a theatrical device. The listeners of ballads used to visualize the story with their third eye and could “see” the mother in law who actually spoke to them. It was as if she said: “You and I know why I have answered so.” The story is then similar to a Greek tragedy, like Oedipus King. We know the truth, but the characters do not; the truth will be revealed only in the topic and dramatic moment of the tragedy. In both cases the concealed truth gives vent to pietas as sympathetic attention toward the fragile and mortal. It is in this way that the tragedy of Arnau’s wife, amplified by the birth of a child, becomes a projection of something already lived, or hypothetically lived, in which we all recognize ourselves. With all the other listeners we become a sort of silent Greek chorus expressing a feeling of pietas. (from here)
Rosina de Pèira & Martina from Cançons de femnas 1980


I
Lo comte Arnau, lo chivalièr,
dins lo Piemont va batalhier.
Comte Arnau, ara tu ten vas;
digas-nos quora tornaras.
II
Enta Sant Joan ieu tornarai
e mort o viu  aici serai.
Ma femna deu, enta Sant Joan
me rendre lo pair d’un bel enfant.
III
Mas la Sant Joan ven d’arribar,
lo Comte Amau ven a mancar.
Sa mair, del pus naut de l’ostal,
lo vei venir sus son caval.
IV
“Mair, fasetz far prompte lo leit
que longtemps non i dormirai.
Fasetz-lo naut, fasetz-lo bas,
Que ma miga n’entenda pas.”
V
Comte Arnau, a que vos pensatz
qu’un bel enfant vos quitariatz?
Ni per un enfant ni per dus,
mair, ne ressuscitarai plus.
VI
“Mair, que es aquel bruch dins l’ostal?
Sembla las orasons d’Arnau.
La femna que ven d’enfantar
orasons non deu escotar.”
VII
“Mair, per la festa de deman
quina rauba me botaran?
La femna que ven d’enfantar
la rauba negra deu portar!”
VIII
“Mair, porque tant de pregadors?
Que dison dins las orasons?”
Dison: la que ven d’enfantar
a la misseta deu anar.
IX
A la misseta ela se’n va,
vei lo Comt’ Arnau enterar.
“V’aqui las claus de mon cinton,
mair, torni plus a la maison.”
X
“Terra santa, tel cal obrir,
Voli parlar a mon marit;
Terra santa, te cal barrar,
amb Arnau voli demorar.
English translation*
I
Earl Arnau, the knight
Joins in a war in Piedmont.
“Earl Arnau, now you are going;
Tell us when you come back.”
II
“I’ll come back before Saint John’s day.
Either dead or alive I will be here.
My wife, just before Saint John’s day,
Will make me father of a beautiful son.”
III
But Saint John’s day comes,
Earl Arnau is missing.
His mother sees him coming on horseback
From the top of the house.
IV
“Mother have my bed made,
I won’t sleep long.
Make it high or make it low,
Provided that my wife doesn’t hear.”
V
“Earl Arnau, what are you thinking of,
That you will leave your beautiful son?”
Neither for one son, nor for two,
Mother, I won’t raise from the dead.”
VI
“Mother what’s that noise in the house?
It sounds as if they were Arnau’s prayers.”
“Woman who has just given birth to a child
Must not listen to prayers.”
VII
“Mother, for tomorrow’s feast,
What will they wear me with?”
Woman who has just given birth to a child,
Must wear a black dress!”
VIII
“Mother, why so many people praying?
What do they say in the prayers?”
“They say: who has given birth to a child/Must go to the Mass.”.
IX
She goes to the Mass
Sees Earl Arnau buried:
“Here is the key of my belt,
I won’t come back home anymore.”
X
“Holy land, you must open up,
I want to talk to my husband.
Holy land, you must close,
With Arnau I want to remain.”

NOTE
* (from here)

Version from Piedmont (Italy)

FONTI
http://chrsouchon.free.fr/nann.htm
http://chrsouchon.free.fr/nannf.htm
http://chrsouchon.free.fr/chants/trador.htm
http://chrsouchon.free.fr/chants/roirenau.htm
http://chrsouchon.free.fr/chants/arnaud.htm

https://www.antiwarsongs.org/canzone.php?lang=it&id=2499
https://www.antiwarsongs.org/canzone.php?id=1049&lang=it
http://www.coroasiago.it/rinaldo.htm
http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=8862

The Concealed Death: Re Giraldin

Leggi in Italiano

 Concealed death

LORD OLAF AND THE ELVES 
SCANDINAVIAN VARIANTS
BRITISH AND AMERICAN VERSIONS
FRENCH VERSIONS
ITALIAN VERSION

Just as professor Child also Costantino Nigra brings back the theme of concealed death by a story of the old farmers of Castelnuovo.

The fairy’s present

rackham_fairy There was a hunter who often hunted on the mountainside. Once he saw a very beautiful and richly dressed woman under a rock bottom. The woman, who was a fairy, nodded to the hunter to approach and asked him to take her as his wife. The hunter told her he was just married and did not want to leave his young bride. The fairy gives him a casket containing a gift for the young wife, and advises him to hand it out only to her and by no means to open it. Of course, on his way home he cannot refrain from opening it and finds a splendid belt interwoven with gold and silver threads. Just to know what it will look like when worn by his wife, he ties it round the trunk of a tree. Suddenly the belt catches fire when the tree is hit by a flash of lightning. The hunter is hit, too and he hardly manages to drag himself home. He crumbles on his bed and dies.

Arthur_Rackham_1909_Undine_(7_of_15)In the Breton and Piedmontese version, the accent is placed more precisely on the second part of the story, that of the Concealed Death, a tipicall feature in all Romance languages of the ballad: Comte Arnau (in the Occitan version), Le Roi Renaud (the French one) and Re Gilardin (the Piedmontese one). The relationship between the knight-king and the fairy-mermaid is more nuanced than the Nordic versions, it seems to prevail a more “catholic” and intransigent view on sexual relations … in fact in the ballad greenwood and fairy disappear while the knight returns from the war wounded to death.

RE GILARDIN

La Ciapa Rusa (founders Maurizio Martinotti and Beppe Greppi) made many ethnographic researches with the elderly singers and the players of the musical tradition of the Four provinces -to be precise in Alta Val Borbera – a mountain area straddling four different provinces Al, Ge, Pv and Pc.
The ballad of medieval high origin, had already been collected and published in different versions by Costantino Nigra in his “Popular Songs of Piedmont”

The Ciapa Rusa in 1982 makes an initial arrangement of Re Gilardin
In this first version there is a sort of dramatic representation with the narrating voice (Alberto Cesa) the king (Maurizio Martinotti), the mother, the widow, the altar boy. We can imagine all the most tragic and comical scenes – turned into horror with the dead man who snatches a last kiss from his widow!

La Ciapa Rusa from  “Ten da chent l’archet che la sunada l’è longa – Canti e danze tradizionali dell’ alessandrino” 1982: compared to the translation, it seems more like a “literary” language than a dialect.

Gordon Bok and hig group, 1988 ♪ 
they follow with a good skill the Piedmontese version and in the notes Gordon says he has received the Ciapa Rusa version through the Italian music journalist Mauro Quai

The group refounded with the name of Tendachent (remain Maurizio Martinotti – ghironda and voice, Bruno Raiteri -violin and viola- and Devis Longo – voice, keyboards and flutes) again proposes the ballad in theri first album “Ori pari”, 2000 , with a more progressive sound (now the group is called Nord-Italian progressive folk-rock)

Donata Pinti from “Io t’invoco, libertà!: La canzone piemontese dalla tradizione alla protesta” 2010 ♪ featuring Silvano Biolatti on the guitar

RE GILARDIN*
I
Re Gilardin, lü ‘l va a la guera
Lü el va a la guera a tirar di spada
(Lü el va a la guera a tirar di spada)
O quand ‘l’è stai mità la strada(1)
Re Gilardin ‘l’è restai ferito.
Re Gilardin ritorna indietro
Dalla sua mamma vò ‘ndà a morire.
II
O tun tun tun, pica a la porta
“O mamma mia che mi son morto”.
“O pica pian caro ‘l mio figlio
Che la to dona ‘l g’à ‘n picul fante(2)”
“O madona la mia madona(3)
Cosa vol dire ch’i  sonan tanto?”
“O nuretta, la mia nuretta
I g’fan ‘legria al tuo fante”
III
“O madona la mia madona
Cosa vol dire ch’i cantan tanto?”
“O nuretta, la mia nuretta
I g’fan ‘legria ai soldati
“O madona , la mia madona
Disem che moda ho da vestirmi”
“Vestati di rosso, vestati di nero
Che le brunette stanno più bene”
IV
O quand l’è stai ‘nt l üs de la chiesa
D’un cirighello si l’à incontrato
“Bundì bongiur an vui vedovella”
“O no no no che non son vedovella
g’l fante in cüna e ‘l marito in guera”
“O si si si che voi sei vedovella
Vostro marì l’è tri dì che ‘l fa terra”
V
“O tera o tera apriti ‘n quatro
Volio vedere il mio cuor reale”
“La tua boca la sa di rose(4)
‘nvece la mia la sa di terra”
English translation**
I
King Gilardin was in the war,
Was in the war wielding his word.
(Was in the war wielding his word.)
When he was Midway, upon the journey, King Gilardin was wounded.
King Gilardin goes back home,/At his mother’s house he whished to die.
II
Bang, bang! He thumped at the door.
“O Mother, I am near to die.”
“Don’t thump so hard, my son,
Your wife has just given birth to a boy.”
“My Lady my mother-in-law
What does all their chanting mean?”
“O my daughter-in-law,
They want to feast your baby.”
III
“My Lady my mother-in-law
What does all their singing mean?”
“O my daughter-in-law,
They want to entertain the soldiers.”
“My Lady my mother-in-law
Tell me, how shall I dress?”
“Dress in red or dress in black,
It fits brunettes perfectly .”
IV
When she came to the church gate,
She encountered an altar boy:
“A wish you a good day, new widow.”
“By no means am I a new widow,
I’ve a child in its cradle and a husband at war.”
“O yes, you are a new widow,
Your husband was buried three days ago.”
V
“O earth, open up in four corners!
I want to see the king of my heart.”
“Your mouth has a taste of rose,
Whereas mine has a taste of earth.”

NOTES
* (From an original recording by Maurizio Martinotti in the upper Val Borbera)
** (revised by here)
1) it’s inevitable remembering Dante “Midway, upon the journey of our life” (with forest corollary), in this context it’s a point that changes forever the life of the king, or the hero.
2) probably he knew about his fatherhood at the time of his death
3) in the answers the real reason for the preparations is hidden: the king’s funeral is being set up
4) it is the dead king who speaks to his wife, but also the popular wisdom, the tearful burial times are still to come .. In the French (and Occitan) version of Re Renaud the earth opens up to swallow up the lady

RE ARDUIN

Cantovivo recorded the same ballad with the title “King Arduin” already collected from the oral tradition by Franco Lucà, in 1984 to Alpette Canavese, performer Battista Goglio “Barba Teck” (1898-1985)

RE ARDUIN
I
Re Arduin (1) a ven da Turin
Re Arduin a ven da Turin
Ven da la guera l’è stai ferì
Ven da la guera l’è stai ferì
II
“O mamma mia preparmi ‘l let
La cuerta noira e i linsöi di lin
III
O mamma mia cosa diran
Le fije bele ca na stan lì”
IV
“O no no no parla en tan
La nostra nora l’à avù n’infan”
V
“O mamma mia (2) disimi ‘n po’
Che i panatè a na piuren tan”
VI
“A l‘àn brüsà tüti i biciulan (3)
L‘è par sulì c’a na piuren tan”
VII
“O mamma mia cosa diran
Perché da morto na sunen tan”
VIII
“Sarà mort prinsi o quai signor
Tüte le cioche a i fan unur”
IX
“Re Arduin a ven da Turin
L‘è ndà a la guera l’è stai ferì”
X
“O tera freida apriti qui
Ch io vada col mio marì”
English Translation Cattia Salto
I
King Arduin comes from Turin
King Arduin comes from Turin
comes from the war and he was wounded, comes from the war and he was wounded
II
O mother dear, prepare me my bed
the black blanket and linen sheets
III
O mother dear what will they say
the fine ladies who stay there?
IV
Do not talk a lot / our daughter in law has had a baby
V
O  mother dear tell me why the bakers so cry?
VI
They burned all their breads
for they cry so much
VII
O mother dear what’s the news
for stroking the funeral bells?
VIII
The prince or some Lord will be dead/ all the bells do him honor
IX
King Arduin comes from Turin
comes from the war and he was wounded,
X
O  earth, open up now
that I’ll go with my husband

NOTES
* from here
1) King Arduin (Marquis of Ivrea and first king of Italy) is still extremely popular in the Canavese, tributing him in many historical re-enactments
2) in reality it is the daughter-in-law who asks for information on the laments and the dead bells (theme of hidden death) while in the first part (verses II and III) it is Arduino who speaks. Only in the 9th stanza is the death of Arduino announced
3) the “bicciolani” are biscuits typical of Vercellese, but in Turin the biciulan are long and thin breads (a bit pot-bellied in the middle and thin at the tips) the Piedmontese version of the baguette!

LINK
https://minimazione.wordpress.com/2007/08/22/re-gilardin-alla-guerra/
http://www.antiwarsongs.org/canzone.php?lang=it&id=1048
http://chrsouchon.free.fr/chants/italren.htm
http://www.nspeak.com/allende/comenius/bamepec/multimedia/saggio1.htm
http://www.traditionalmusic.co.uk/child-ballads-v2/child8-v2%20-%200371.htm
http://amischanteurs.org/wp-content/uploads/Canti-di-Donata-Pinti.pdf

Freedom Come All Ye & Battle of the Somme

Leggi in italiano

Freedom Come-All-Ye is a song written by Hamish Henderson (1919-2002) in 1960 for the Peace March in Holy Loch, near Glasgow, it is a song against the war, a cry for freedom against slavery and against the oppression of the working class and ethnic minorities, in the name of social justice. The song is in scots, while the melody is a retreat march for bagpipes from the First World War, arranged by John MacLellan (1875-1949) who titled it “The Bloody Fields of Flanders”; Henderson first heard played on the Anzio beachhead in 1944 (Second World War).The melody however is an old Perthshire aria already known with the title of “Busk Bush Bonnie Lassie

Dick Gaughan

Lorraine McIntosh live –
Luke Kelly

 


I
Roch the wind in the clear day’s dawin
Blaws the cloods heilster-gowdie owre the bay
But there’s mair nor a roch wind blawin (1)
Thro the Great Glen o the warld the day
It’s a thocht that wad gar oor rottans
Aa thae rogues that gang gallus fresh an gay
Tak the road an seek ither loanins
Wi thair ill-ploys tae sport an play
II
Nae mair will our bonnie callants
Merch tae war when oor braggarts crousely craw (2)
Nor wee weans frae pitheid an clachan
Mourn the ships sailin doun the Broomielaw (3)
Broken faimlies in lands we’ve hairriet
Will curse ‘Scotlan the Brave’ nae mair, nae mair
Black an white ane-til-ither mairriet
Mak the vile barracks o thair maisters (4) bare
III
Sae come aa ye at hame wi freedom
Never heed whit the houdies croak for Doom (5)
In yer hoos aa the bairns o Adam
Will find breid, barley-bree an paintit rooms
When Maclean (6) meets wi’s friens in Springburn (7)
Aa thae roses an geans will turn tae blume (8)
An the black lad frae yont Nyanga (9)
Dings the fell gallows o the burghers doun.
English translation*
I
It’s a rough wind in the clear day’s dawning
Blows the clouds head-over-heels across the bay
But there’s more than a rough wind blowing
Through the Great Glen of the world today
It’s a thought that would make our rodents,
All those rogues who strut and swagger,
Take the road and seek other pastures
To carry out their wicked schemes
II
No more will our fine young men
March to war at the behest of jingoists and imperialists
Nor will young children from mining communities and rural hamlets
Mourn the ships sailing off down the River Clyde
Broken families in lands we’ve helped to oppress
Will never again have reason to curse the sound of advancing Scots
Black and white, united in friendship and marriage,
Will make the slums of the employers bare
III
So come all ye who love freedom
Pay no attention to the prophets of doom
In your house all the children of Adam
Will be welcomed with food, drink and clean bright accommodation
When MacLean returns to his people
All the roses and cherry trees will blossom
And the black guy from Nyanga
Will break the capitalist stranglehold on everyone’s life

NOTES
* from here
1) a wind of change is a metaphor dear to the political world, it is the wind of people protest, who claim their right to live a full and dignified life
2) are those who rant and foment the war to push the sons of the people forward
3) Glasgow’s main thoroughfare adjacent to the river Clyde: it is the pier from which many ships loaded with emigrants have left
4) the reference is to apartheid in South Africa when the blacks were deported to the “homeland of the south” and deprived of all political and civil rights.
5) In those years peace meant to protest against the atomic arms race and the fear of a nuclear conflict: the sign of peace that today belongs to the symbols shared on a global level was created in 1958 by the Englishman Gerald Holtom for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, CND: as he himself declared, the three lines are the superposition of the letters N and D – which stand for Nuclear Disarmament – taken from the semaphore alphabet. The circle, on the other hand, symbolizes the Earth.

6) John Maclean (1879 -1923), Scottish socialist, known for his fierce opposition to the First World War. For this reason, in 1918 he was tried for sedition and imprisoned. There was a popular mobilization in his favor and a few months later he was released. In 1918 he ended up again in prison for obstruction to recruitment and sedition and he was released after 7 months; the months in jail have harmed the health of Maclean who will die at age 45; his communism evolved against the Scottish Labor parties to advocate Scotland’s independence and the return to the old social clan structure but on a communist basis
7) district of the working class of Glasgow. The south of Scotland heavily idustrialized from the second half of the 1800 transform Glasgow and the Clyde into a bulwark of radical socialists and communists so much to get the nickname “Red Clyde”
8) spring is the season of rebirth
-) Nyanga is a city in Cape Town, South Africa. The residents of Nyanga have been very active in protesting the laws of apartheid

The Battle of the Somme

Another bagpipe melody from World War I was composed by piper William Laurie (1881-1916) to commemorate one of the deadliest battles, the Battle of the Somme which began July 1916 with heavy losses from day one; in the end it will result 620.000 losses among the Allies and about 450.000 among the German rows: the melody is in 9/8 and it is considered a retreat march, not necessarily as a specific military maneuver. Laurie (or Lawrie) participated in the battle with the 8th Battalion Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Lawrie and John MacLellan served in the same band during the war), but severely tried by the wounds and life in the trench fell seriously ill and he was repatriated England where he died in November of the same year.

The Dubliners often with “Freedom Come-All-Ye”

The Malinky with Jimmy Waddel (at 3:39)

It was Dave Swarbrick who brought the piece to the Fireport Convention group after learning it from his friend and teacher Beryl Marriott

Albion Country Band

THE DANCE

A Scottish dance entitled The Scottish Lilt was composed shortly after 1746 to be practiced by ladies of good family who wished to court or entertain the gentlemen seducing them with their grace. It’s a Scottish National Dances traditionally matched with the melody The Battle of the Somme: the dance moves are inspired by the classical ballet


the steps in detail

LINK
http://unionsong.com/u597.html
https://www.antiwarsongs.org/canzone.php?lang=it&id=13463
http://www.andreagaddini.it/FreedomCamAllYe.html
http://mysongbook.de/msb/songs/f/freedomc.html
https://www.scotslanguage.com/articles/view/id/4996
https://www.wired.it/play/cultura/2014/02/21/nascita-simbolo-pace/
http://thebattleofthefield.tripod.com/id11.html
https://thesession.org/tunes/2923

Freedom Come All Ye

Read the post in English

Scritta nel 1960 da Hamish Henderson (1919-2002) per la Marcia della Pace a Holy Loch, presso Glasgow, “Freedom Come-All-Ye”  è una canzone contro la guerra, un grido di libertà contro la schiavitù e contro l’oppressione della classe lavoratrice e delle minoranze etniche, in nome della giustizia sociale. La canzone è in scots, mentre la melodia è una marcia da ritirata per cornamusa della prima guerra mondiale, arrangiata da John MacLellan (1875-1949) che la intitolò “The Bloody Fields of Flanders”;  Henderson ebbe modo di ascoltarla nel 1944 durante la seconda guerra mondiale mentre combatteva ad Anzio. La melodia tuttavia è una vecchia aria del Perthshire già nota con il titolo di “Busk Bush Bonnie Lassie

Dick Gaughan

Lorraine McIntosh live –
Luke Kelly

 


I
Roch the wind in the clear day’s dawin
Blaws the cloods heilster-gowdie owre the bay
But there’s mair nor a roch wind blawin (1)
Thro the Great Glen o the warld the day
It’s a thocht that wad gar oor rottans
Aa thae rogues that gang gallus fresh an gay
Tak the road an seek ither loanins
Wi thair ill-ploys tae sport an play
II
Nae mair will our bonnie callants
Merch tae war when oor braggarts crousely craw (2)
Nor wee weans frae pitheid an clachan
Mourn the ships sailin doun the Broomielaw (3)
Broken faimlies in lands we’ve hairriet
Will curse ‘Scotlan the Brave’ nae mair, nae mair
Black an white ane-til-ither mairriet
Mak the vile barracks o thair maisters (4) bare
III
Sae come aa ye at hame wi freedom
Never heed whit the houdies croak for Doom (5)
In yer hoos aa the bairns o Adam
Will find breid, barley-bree an paintit rooms
When Maclean (6) meets wi’s friens in Springburn (7)
Aa thae roses an geans will turn tae blume (8)
An the black lad frae yont Nyanga (9)
Dings the fell gallows o the burghers doun.
Traduzione italiana di Carla Sassi*
I
Forte il vento nell’alba del giorno chiaro/Sovverte le nuvole via per la baia,
Ma non v’è più il vento forte che soffiava
Attraverso la grande valle del mondo.
E’ un pensiero che invoglia i nostri ratti,/I briganti che infieriscono felici e intatti,
A prendere il cammino, in cerca di luoghi nuovi/Dove godere e giocare malvagi inganni.
II
Mai più la dolce gioventù dovrà
Marciare in guerra mentre i pavidi si vantano rauchi
Né i piccoli figli della miniera e del villaggio
Piangeranno le navi che salpano via dal Broomielaw.
Famiglie divise in terre da noi razziate
Non malediranno la Scozia guerriera, mai più;
Il nero e il bianco, l’uno all’altro uniti nell’amore,
Lasceranno deserte le vili caserme dei padroni.
III
Qui venite tutti, alla casa della libertà,
Non ascoltate i corvi che invocano rauchi la fine
Nella tua casa ogni figlio di Adamo
Troverà pane e birra e mura imbiancate.
E quando John MacLean si unirà ai compagni di Springburn
Tutte le rose ed i ciliegi fioriranno,
E un fanciullo nero dal lontano Nyanga
Frantumerà le forche feroci della città.

NOTE
* (dal libro “Poeti della Scozia contemporanea” a cura di Carla Sassi e Marco Fazzini, Supernova Editore, Venezia 1992)
1) il vento del cambiamente una metafora cara al mondo politico, è il vento di protesta del popolo che rivendita il suo diritto a vivere una vita piena e dignitosa
2) sono quelli che sbraitano e fomentano la guerra a mandare avanti in prima linea i figli del popolo
3) principale arteria di Glasgow adiacente al fiume Clyde: è il molo da cui sono partite tante navi carichi di emigranti
4) il riferimento è all’apartheid in Sud Africa quando i neri vennero deportati nelle “homeland del sud” e privati di ogni diritto politico e civile.
5) Non dimentichiamo che in quegli anni la pace voleva dire protestare contro la corsa all’armamento atomico e la paura di un conflitto nucleare: il segno di pace che oggi appartiene ai simboli condivisi a livello globale fu creato nel 1958 dall’inglese Gerald Holtom per La Campagna per il disarmo nucleare (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, CND) : come dichiarò lui stesso, le tre linee sono la sovrapposizione delle lettere N e D – che stanno per Nuclear Disarmament – prese dall’ alfabeto semaforico. Il cerchio, invece, simboleggia la Terra.

6) John Maclean (1879 –1923), socialista scozzese, noto per la sua fiera opposizione alla prima guerra mondiale. Per questo nel 1918 fu processato per sedizione e imprigionato. Ci fu una mobilitazione popolare in suo favore e qualche mese dopo venne scarcerato. Ancora nel 1918 finì di nuovo in prigione per ostruzione al reclutamento e sedizione e di nuovo scarcerato dopo 7 mesi; i mesi in carcere hanno nuociuto alla salute di Maclean che morirà a 45 anni; il suo comunismo finì per discostarsi dai partiti laburisti scozzesi per propugnare l’indipendenza della Scozia e il ritorno all’antica struttura sociale dei clan ma su base comunista
6) quartiere della classe lavoratrice di Glasgow. Il sud della Scozia pesantemente idustrializzato a partire dalla seconda metà del 1800 trasformano Glasgow e il Clyde in un baluardo di socialisti radicali e comunisti tanto da ottenere il soprannome di “Clyde Rosso”
7) è la primavera la stagione della rinascita
8) Nyanga è una città a Città del Capo , in Sud Africa . I residenti di Nyanga sono stati molto attivi nella protesta contro le leggi dell’apartheid

The Battle of the Somme

Un’altra melodia per cornamusa sempre riconducibile alla I Guerra Mondiale, fu composta dal piper William Laurie (1881-1916) per commemorare una delle battaglie più letali, la battaglia della Somme (The Battle of the Somme) che iniziò il1 luglio 1916 con pesanti perdite fin dal primo giorno; alla fine risulteranno 620.000 perdite tra gli Alleati e circa 450.000 tra le file tedesche: la melodia è in 9/8 ed è considerata una marcia da ritirata, non necessariamente come specifica manovra militare. Laurie (o Lawrie) partecipò alla battaglia con l’8° Battaglione Argyll e Sutherland Highlanders (Lawrie e John MacLellan prestarono servizio nella stessa banda durante la guerra), ma duramente provato dalle ferite e dalla vita in trincea si ammalò gravemente e venne rimpatriato in Inghilterra dove morì nel novembre dello stesso anno.

I Dubliners spesso abbinata a “Freedom Come-All-Ye”

I Malinky la abbinano a Jimmy Waddel (inizia a 3:39)

Fu Dave Swarbrick a portare il pezzo nel gruppo Fireport Convention dopo averlo imparato dal suo amico e insegnante Beryl Marriott

Albion Country Band

LA DANZA

Una danza scozzese dal titolo The Scottish Lilt fu composta poco dopo il 1746 per essere praticata dalle madamigelle di buona famiglia che desideravano corteggiare o intrattenere i membri della nobiltà seducendoli con la loro grazia. E’ una Scottish  National Dances abbinata tradizionalmente  alla melodia The Battle of the Somme: i passi di danza sono ispirati al balletto classico

anche con due uomini

i passi nel dettaglio

FONTI
http://unionsong.com/u597.html
https://www.antiwarsongs.org/canzone.php?lang=it&id=13463
http://www.andreagaddini.it/FreedomCamAllYe.html
http://mysongbook.de/msb/songs/f/freedomc.html
https://www.scotslanguage.com/articles/view/id/4996
https://www.wired.it/play/cultura/2014/02/21/nascita-simbolo-pace/
http://thebattleofthefield.tripod.com/id11.html
https://thesession.org/tunes/2923