Johnnie Cope

From “Drums of Autumn” of the Outlander saga written by Diana Gabaldon chapter 4.
In the future Roger sings many popular airs at the Celtic Festival in New England (Outlander Season 4, episode 3)
And here’s one from the ’45,” he said. “This one is from the famous battle of Prestonpans, at which the Highland Army of Charles Stuart routed a much greater English force, under the command of General Jonathan Cope.” 
[In “Tamburi d’Autunno” della saga “La Straniera” di Diana Gabaldon, capitolo 4.
Nel futuro Roger canta molti brani popolari al Festival Celtico nel New England (Outlander stagione 4, terzo episodio)
“E adesso eccovene una del ’45” annunciò. “Viene dalla famosa battaglia di Prestonpans, nella quale l’Esercito delle Highlands di Charlie Stuart sbaragliò le forze inglesi, assai più numerose, sotto il comando del Generale Jonathan Cope”

“Johnnie Cope” is a jacobite song related to the Battle of Prestonpans (a location not far from Edinburgh – Scotland) composed by Adam Skirving . The Scots remember it as the battle of Gladsmuir because of an old prophecy that the pretender to the throne of Scotland would be victorious to Gladsmuir.
“Johnnie Cope” è una canzone giacobita riferita alla battaglia di Prestonpans (una località poco  lontano da Edimburgo – Scozia) composta da Adam Skirving. Gli scozzesi la ricordano come la battaglia di Gladsmuir per via di una vecchia profezia secondo la quale il pretendente al trono di Scozia sarebbe stato vittorioso a Gladsmuir.

charlie-letterA lot of textual versions: almost all begin with the description of a correspondence between John Cope and Charlie Stuart (the Young Pretender), obviously invented, to create a tasty affair between them and they end with Cope terrified at the sight of the Highlanders charge!
The refrain taunts Cope giving him a Sleeping Beauty , the sarcastic verses and the cheerful melody have brought this piece to the present day, still played by many soloists and musical groups.
Le versioni testuali sono molteplici, anche se quasi tutte iniziano con  la descrizione di un carteggio tra John Cope e Charlie Stuart (il  Giovane Pretendente), ovviamente inventato, per creare un gustoso siparietto  tra i due protagonisti e si concludono con Cope terrorizzato alla vista della carica degli Highlander!
Il ritornello schernisce Cope dandogli del  bell’addormentato, i versi sarcastici e la melodia allegra, hanno fatto arrivare fino ai nostri giorni questo brano, ancora interpretato da molti  solisti e gruppi musicali.

TO THE TUNES ( LE MELODIE )

We have three distinct tunes as well as many textual versions, 
[Del brano ci sono almeno tre melodie distinte come pure  molte versioni testuali]
in “Companion” (Oswald, 1759, ix. 11)
in “Scots Tunes” (McLean, c. 1772, 23)
in “Airs” (Aird, 1783, ii. No. J2)
in “SMM”(Johnson, 1790)

The melody is the traditional march of the Scots Guards Regiment
La melodia è diventa la sveglia tradizionale delle Scots Guards Regiment 

Joseph Ritson version

A vigorous interpretation of a very young Andy Stewart ( I, II, IV, V, VI)
Una gagliarda interpretazione di un Andy Stewart giovanissimo 

Sparkling interpretation of Alaistair McDonald and an amazing arrangement with the banjo.
Spumeggiante  interpretazione di Alaistair McDonald e uno  strepitoso arrangiamento con il banjo.

The Tannahill  Weavers in Tannahill Weavers IV – 1981
the legendary “weavers of Tannahill” combined the melody with “The Atholl Highlanders” (here in jig version). The text has small variations in the choice of words [i mitici “tessitori di Tannahill” hanno accoppiato la melodia con “The Atholl Highlanders”  (qui in versione giga). Il testo ha delle piccole variazioni nella scelta delle parole]

Planxty in Cold Blow And The Rainy Night

And the Corries version with bodhran

Joseph Ritson, 1794
I
Cope sent a challenge frae Dunbar (1)
Sayin “Charlie (2) meet me an’ ye daur (3)
An’ I’ll learn ye the airt o’ war
If ye’ll meet me in the morning.”
Chorus
O Hey! Johnnie Cope are ye waukin’ (4) yet?
Or are your drums a-beating yet?
If ye were waukin’ I wad wait
Tae gang tae the coals (5) in the morning.
II
When Charlie looked the letter upon
He drew his sword and scabbard (6) from
“Come, follow me, my merry men
And we’ll meet Johnnie Cope in the morning.”
III
“Now Johnnie, be as good as your word
Come, let us try baith fire and sword
And dinna flee like a frichted bird
That’s chased frae its nest i’ the morning.”
IV
When Johnnie Cope he heard o’ this
He thocht it wouldna be a miss
Tae hae a horse in readiness
Tae flee awa in the morning.
V
Fye now, Johnnie, get up an’ rin
The Highland bagpipes mak’ a din (7)
It’s better tae sleep in a hale skin
For it will be a bluidie morning (8).
VI
When Johnnie Cope tae Dunbar cam
They speired (9) at him, “Where’s a’ your men?”
“The de’il confound me gin I ken
For I left them a’ in the morning.”
VII
Now Johnnie, troth ye werena blate (10)
Tae come wi’ news o’ your ain defeat
And leave your men in sic (11) a strait
Sae early in the morning.
VIII
In faith, quo Johnnie, I got sic flegs (12)
Wi’ their claymores an’ philabegs (13
Gin (14) I face them again, de’il brak my legs
So I wish you a’ good morning.
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
I
Cope lanciò una sfida da Dunbar 
dicendo “Charlie incontratemi se osate,
e io vi insegnerò l’arte della guerra
se m’affronterete all’alba”
Ritornello
Ehi Johnny Cope sei già sveglio ?
e i tuoi tamburi rullano di già?
Se sei sveglio aspetterò prima
di andare nella miniera di carbone stamattina!
II
Quando Charlie lesse la lettera
estrasse la spada dal fodero
“Venite, seguitemi, miei valorosi
e affronteremo Johnny Cope all’alba”
III [Charlie]
“Ora Johnny, siate di parola,
venite, sfidiamoci con il moschetto e la spada
e non fuggite come un uccellino timoroso
che è cacciato dal nido all’alba”
IV
Quando Johnny Cope lo sentì
pensò che non sarebbe stato sbagliato
avere un cavallo pronto
per fuggire via all’alba.
V
Bene, allora Johnny alzati e scappa
le cornamuse scozzesi si avvicinano
è meglio dormire in una pelle sana
che essere bucherellato all’alba
VI
Quando Johnny Cope a Dunbar ritornò,
gli venne chiesto “Dove sono i vostri uomini?”
“Lo sa il Diavolo se lo so,
perchè li ho lasciati tutti all’alba”
VII
Non ti vergogni Johnny
di dover annunciare la tua sconfitta
e di aver lasciato i tuoi uomini nei guai
così di mattina presto?
VIII
“In fede” disse Johnny “mi è venuto un tale spavento per i loro spadoni e gonnellini,
che sia dannato se li affronterò di nuovo,
così auguro a tutti un buon giorno”

French translation
NOTE
1) Dunbar is a town on the south-east coast of Scotland about forty kilometers from Edinburgh, where Cope’s troops landed while the jacobites entered Edinburgh
Dunbar  è la cittadina della costa sud-est della Scozia a una quarantina di km da  Edimburgo, dove sbarcarono gli inglesi  mentre le truppe ribelli entravano in Edimburgo
2) Charles Stuart, the Young Pretender
3) daur =dare [sfidare]
4) wauking=waking 
5) 
The witness is a miner of the nearby coal mines who stopped for a few minutes to watch the British escape! [Il testimone è un minatore delle vicine miniere di carbone che si è fermato qualche minuto per assistere alla fuga degli inglesi e dice ironicamente a Cope: sbrigati ad alzarti che ho fretta di andare al lavoro!]
6) The phrase pronounced by the Bonnie Prince before the battle  “My friends I have flung away the scabbard!” [frase pronunciata dal Bonnie Prince prima della battaglia “Amici miei, ho gettato il fodero!“]
7)  “make their noise” [letteralmente fanno rumore]
8) bluidie morning= bloody morning [letteralmente  “perchè sarà una mattina sanguinosa (dannata)”]
9) speired=asked. The losses suffered by the British were heavy in the face of only thirty deaths in the Scottish camp. [Le perdite subite dagli inglesi furono pesanti a fronte di solo trenta morti nello schieramento scozzese.]
10) blate=shy, [timido]
11) sic=such
12) flegs=frights, [paure]
13) philabegs=kilts. The famous  highlanders charge!  [La famosa carica degli highlanders]
14) gin= if [Cope risponde “e se li incontrassi di nuovo, che il diavolo mi prenda”]

ATHOLL HIGHLANDERS

La melodia è stra-conosciuta, suonata come marcia o come jig. Atholl si trova nel cuore delle Highlands scozzesi e deriva il nome dal gaelico “ath Fodla” ovvero Nuova Irlanda conseguente alle invasioni nell’isola delle tribù irlandesi nel VII sec. Gli Atholl Highlanders sono un reggimento di fanteria scozzese alle dipendenze private del Duca di Atholl (tutt’ora effettivo a livello cerimoniale)
da The Fiddler’s  Companion
The name Athole (or Atholl) derives from  the Gaelic ath Fodla,  generally translated as New Ireland, and stems from the first invasion of the  northern land by the Irish tribe the Scots in the 7th century (Matthews,  1972). The tune, described sometimes as a Scottish warpipes  melody, is dedicated to the private army of the Duke of Atholl,  the last private army still legally existing (albeit on a token level) in the  British Isles (Boys of the Lough). The original Athole Highlanders (and the ones associated with the  tune) were the old 77th Highland Regiment, raised in 1778 and commanded by  Colonel James Murray. Musically, the tune contains a characteristic melodic  cliché in Scottish music in which a figure is followed by the same or a  related figure on the triad one tone below or above (Emmerson,  1971).

Il generale George Murray (1694-1760) che seguì la rivolta giacobita del 1745 era il sesto figlio di John Murray duca di Atholl.
The Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders

ROBERT BURNS: Sir John Cope Trode The North Right Far

“Sir John Cope Trode The North Right Far”, the Robert Burns version is collected in the Scots Musical Museum.
Burns recorded a short note on this piece in his commentary on the ‘Museum’ ‘The air was the tune of an old song, of which I have heard some verses, but now only remember the title, which was ‘Will ye go to the coals in the morning”. (from here)
“Sir John Cope Trode The North Right Far” è la versione di Robert Burns riportata nello Scots Musical Museum, nelle note Burns così commenta: “l’aria è la melodia di una vecchia canzone, di cui ho sentito alcuni versi, ma ora ricordo solo il titolo, che era ‘Will ye go to the coals in the morning”

Jamie McMenemy

Paul Kenna

Scots Musical Museum, 1790
I
Sir John Cope trode the north right far, 
Yet ne’er a rebel he cam naur,

Until he landed at Dunbar
Right early in a morning.
II
He wrote a challenge for Dunbar,

Come fight me Charlie an ye daur;
If it be not by the chance of war
I’ll give you a merry morning.
III
When Charlie look’d the letter upon

He drew his sword and scabbard from-
“So Heaven restore to me my own,
I’ll meet you, Cope, in the morning.”
Chorus
Hey Johnie Cope are ye wauking yet,
Or are ye sleeping I would wit:
O haste ye get up for the drums do beat,
Of fye Cope rise in the morning.

IV
Cope swore with many a bloody word
That he would fight them gun and sword,
But he fled frae his nest like an ill scar’d bird, And Johnie he took wing in the morning.

V
It was upon an afternoon,

Sir Johnie march’d to Preston town;
He says, “My lads come lean you down, 
And we’ll fight the boys in the morning.”
VI

But when he saw the Highland lads
Wi’tartan trews (1) and white cokauds,
Wi’ swords and guns and rungs and gauds,
O Johnie he took wing in the morning.
[chorus]

VII
On the morrow when he did rise,

He look’d between him and the skies;
He saw them wi’ their naked thighs,
Which fear’d him in the morning.
VIII
O then he flew into Dunbar,

Crying for a man of war;
He thought to have pass’d for a rustic tar,
And gotten awa in the morning.
IX
Sir Johnie into Berwick rade,

Just as the devil had been his guide;
Gien him the warld he would na stay’d
To foughten the boys in the morning.
[chorus]
X
Says the Berwickers unto Sir John,

O what’s become of all your men,
In faith, says he, I dinna ken,
I left them a’ this morning.
XI
ays Lord Mark Kerr (2), ye are na blate,

To bring us the news o’ your ain defeat;
I think you deserve the back o’ the gate (3),
Get out o’ my sight this morning.
[chorus]

traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Sir John Cope prese la rotta per il Nord,
tuttavia mai nessun ribelle gli si avvicinò
finchè sbarcò a Dunbar
proprio all’alba
II
Egli scrisse una sfida da Dunbar 
“Charlie venite a combattere in duello se osate;
e se non fosse per il rischio della guerra
vi darei un Buon Giorno”
III
Quando Charlie lesse la lettera
estrasse la spada dal fodero
“Così il Cielo restituirà i miei diritti,
ti affronterò, Cope all’alba!”
Ritornello
Ehi Johnny Cope vorrei sapere
se sei già sveglio
o se stai dormendo,
affrettati ad alzarti che i tamburi rimbombano, vergogna, Cope, alzati è mattino!
IV
Cope giurò con parole di sangue,
che li avrebbe combattuti con il moschetto e la spada, ma fuggì dal suo nido come un uccellino timoroso e Johnny prese il volo all’alba
V
Era nel pomeriggio
che Sir John marciò su Preston
dicendo “Riposatevi miei compagni
e combatteremo i ribelli al mattino”
VI
Ma quando vide gli Highlander
con i pantaloni tartan e le bianche coccarde,
con le spade e moschetti e bastoni e pugnali
O Johnny prese il volo all’alba.
Ritornello
VII
Il giorno seguente quando si alzò
guardò tra lui e il cielo;
e li vide con le cosce nude
che lo spaventarono all’alba.
VIII
Oh allora si precipitò a Dunbar
gridando per i rinforzi,
credeva di essere preso per uno zoticone
a scappare all’aba
IX
Sir John corse a Berwick
come se avesse il diavolo alle calcagna;
non sarebbe rimasto per niente al mondo
a combattere i ribelli all’alba
Ritornello
X
Dicono quelli di Berwick a Sir John 
“Dove sono i vostri uomini?”
“Lo sa il Diavolo se lo so,
perchè li ho lasciati tutti stamattina”
XI
Dice Lord Mark Kerr ” Voi non vi vergognate
di portarci la notizia della propria sconfitta?
Credo vi meritiate un punizione,
fuori dalla mia vista stamattina”
Ritornello

English translation
NOTE
1) tartan trousers
2) Cope had to report his defeat to the Berwick garrison commander, Lord Mark Kerr. He was court-martialed but exonerated from the accusation of having himself fled the battlefield.
Cope ha dovuto riferire la sua sconfitta al comandante della guarnigione di Berwick, Lord Mark Kerr. Fu sottoposto a corte marziale ma assolto dall’accusa di essere scappato dal campo di battaglia.
3) letteralmente “meritarsi il retro della porta” 

http://chrsouchon.free.fr/johnnie.htm
https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=111922

https://museu.ms/collection/object/55921/volume-iii-song-234-pages-242-and-243-johnie-cope-scanned-from-the-1853-edition-of-the-scots-musical?pUnitId=1134

http://singout.org/2013/01/29/robert-burns-and-the-art-of-rebellion-part-one-hey-johnie/
https://thesession.org/tunes/107

https://burnsc21.glasgow.ac.uk/johnie-cope/

Outlander: Wool Waulking Songs

Leggi in italiano

FROM  OUTLANDER SAGA

Diana Gabaldon

“Hot piss sets the dye fast,” one of the women had explained to me as I blinked, eyes watering, on my first entrance to the shed. The other women had watched at first, to see if I would shrink back from the work, but wool-waulking was no great shock, after the things I had seen and done in France, both in the war of 1944 and the hospital of 1744. Time makes very little difference to the basic realities of life. And smell aside, the waulking shed was a warm, cozy place, where the women of Lallybroch visited and joked between bolts of cloth, and sang together in the working, hands moving rhythmically across a table, or bare feet sinking deep into the steaming fabric as we sat on the floor, thrusting against a partner thrusting back.”
(From DRAGONFLY IN AMBER, Chapter 34, “The Postman Always Rings Twice”. Copyright© 1992 by Diana Gabaldon.)
The Scottish women have developed a particular technique for the twisting of the tweed, that woolen fabric from Scotland, warm, resistant and almost indestructible, used by fishermen and shepherds to keep warmer in a climate so cold and windy.
Cloth were “mistreated” by a group of women sitting around a table with 4 beat: first, the fabric is banged on the table in front of you, then slammed towards the center of the table, then returned to the initial position and then is passed to the next woman (clockwise). To count the time and make the work less monotonous the women sang some songs, there was the ban dhuan (or the song-woman) that directed the song, while the others followed her in the refrain. After some songs the fabric was softer, thicker, and more tightly woven.

OUTLANDER TV, season I: “Rent”

In Outlander TV serie this glimpse of life in a scottish village of eighteenth-century, is developed in the Dougal Mackenzie’s journey, as he collects rents from the tenants of Castel Leoch. Claire goes on the road with Dougal, and almost by chance, she hears some voices and sees the women as they are waulking the tweeds.

Outlander I, episode 5: Mo Nighean Donn

English transaltion*
Oh how my mind is heavy
as I’m north west of the Storr (1)
[Sèist:]
My brown haired girl hò gù Hì rì rì hù lò
My brown haired girl hò gù.
My brown haired girl, I remark
thee
At the fair of the young women.
[Sèist]
Hì rì rì hù lò  My brown haired girl hò gù.
And we will walk hand in hand
[Sèist]
Hì rì rì hù lò  My brown haired girl hò gù.
Regardless of any living elders (2).

Gur e mise tha fo ghruaim
‘S mi ‘n taobh tuath dhan an Stòr.
[Sèist:]
Mo nigh’n donn hò gù Hì rì rì hù lò
Mo nigh’n donn hò gù 
Mo nigh’n donn shònruich mi fhéin thu
ann an broad nam ban òg
[Sèist]
Hì rì rì hù lò Mo nigh’n donn hò gù 
‘S bidh mo làmh na do làimh
[Sèist]
Hì rì rì hù lò Mo nigh’n donn hò gù 
Dh’aindeoin èildeir tha beò.

NOTES
1)  The Storr is a rocky hill on the Trotternish peninsula of the Isle of Skye in Scotland
2) Similar expressions are recurrent in popular songs when a young couple “swimmed against the tide” about courtship and don’t followed the tradition.  (celtic wedding)

Clair takes part in the fulling of the tweed and sings with the village women. The ban dhuan is Fiona Mackenzie

Two are the Wool Waulking Songs  in  Outlander: Season 1, Vol. 2 (Original Television Soundtrack) 
Latha Siubhal Beinne Dhomh” and “Mo Nighean Donn” (a tribute to Claire’s brown hair)

Latha Siubhal Beinne Dhomh

Originally from the island of Barra “Latha Siubhal Beinne Dhomh” (One day as I roamed the hills) is about a man roaming around the Highlands, who comes across a beautiful young girl gathering herbs; these accidental encounters on the moors (between the heather and the broom in bloom) are the subject of many traditional Scottish songs from ancient origins, and often man is not limited to the request for a kiss! The girl rejects him because she considers him a vagabond. As usual in the choice of musical tracks, the lyrics always have an affinity with the story told in the saga.

Hi ill eo ro bha ho
Hi ill eo bhòidheach
‘S na hi ill eo ro bha ho

English translation*
One day as I was traveling a hill
A day of traveling moorland
I met a girl
beautiful, tresses in her hair
A little knife in her hand
As she was reaping daisies
As she was reaping watercress
I went over to her
And I asked her for a kiss
“Oh, oh, my! (1)
O hairy old man! (2)


(It’s in my own father’s house
That the company would be found:
Twenty hatted-men
A dozen cloaked women
With white towels
Spread out on tables
With clay cups
And glasses full of beer)”


Latha siubhal beinne dhomh
Latha siubhal mòintich
Thachair orm gruagach
Dhualach, bhòidheach
Sgian bheag na làimh
‘S i ri buain neòinean
‘S i ri buain biolaire
Theann mi null rithe
Dh’ iarr mi pòg oirre
Ud! Ud! Ud-ag araidh!
A bhodachain ròmaich


(‘S ann an taigh m’ athar fhèin
Gheibht’ an còmhlan
Fichead fear adadh ann
Dusan bean cleòca
Tubhailtean geal aca
Sgaoilt’ air bhòrdaibh
Cupannan crèadh’ aca
‘S glainneachan beòraich)

NOTES
1) or “Hoots toots!”
2) or ” you shaggy old man!”, a shaggy peasant

Mo Nighean Donn

“Mo Nighean Donn” (My brown-haired lass) does not have a real meaning, it seems more than the ban dhuan to report the gossip of the moment.  Outlander: Season 1, Vol. 2 (Original Television Soundtrack) 
Dougie MacLean in Whitewash 1990 
(a Celtic song with instrumental parts and male voice)

English translation*
Oh how my mind is heavy
as I’m north west of the Storr
[choir]
My brown haired girl hò gù Hì rì rì hù lò
My brown haired girl hò gù.
Right now I’m in the loch by forest
And Effie will not be joning me.
The militia has been risen
And that will take away the young lads from us.
They will be out for a month
This will not leave us full of sadness.
My brown haired girl who gained recognition
At the fair of the young women.
My brown haired girl won a bet
Where the warriors were encamped
I’m tired of setting my nets
In the lower parts of each cove.
(I will head over the hill
Where there is the beautiful young women.
And we will walk hand in hand
Regardless of any living elders.
And my hand will be around you
Though I’d prefer to embrace you.
And if I manage to reach over to you
You’ll get a crown in your hand.
You’ll get that and something better
A good, young, strong sailor.)

Gur e mise tha fo ghruaim
‘S mi ‘n taobh tuath dhan an Stòr.
[Sèist]
Mo nigh’n donn hò gù Hì rì rì hù lò
Mo nigh’n donn hò gù
‘N-dràst’ an loch fada choill
‘S nach tig Oighrig nam chòir.
Thog iad a’ mhailisi suas
‘S bheir siud bhuainn gillean òg.
Cha bhi iad a-muigh ach mìos
‘S cha bhi ‘n cianalas oirnn.
Mo nighean donn choisinn cliù
Ann an cùirt nam ban òg.
Mo nighean donn choisinn geall
Far na champaich na seòid.
Tha mi sgìth cur mo lìon
Ann an iochdar gach òb.
Thèid mi null air a’ bheinn
Far eil loinn nam ban òg.
(‘S bidh mo làmh na do làimh
Dh’aindeoin èildeir tha beò.
‘S bhiodh mo làmh mud chùl bhàn
Gad a gheàrrt’ i mun dòrn.
Ach ma ruigeas mise null
Gheibh thu crùin na do dhòrn.
Gheibh thu sin is rud nas fheàrr
Maraiche math làidir òg.)

LINK
http://www.bbc.co.uk/alba/oran/orain/latha_siubhal_beinne_dhomh/
http://s3.spanglefish.com/s/10130/documents/songs/latha%20siubhal%20beinne%20dhomh.pdf
https://virtualgael.files.wordpress.com/2017/05/lathasiubhalbeinne.pdf
http://www.tobarandualchais.co.uk/en/fullrecord/39128/10
http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/alltandubh/orain/Latha_Siubhal_Beinne.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/alba/oran/orain/mo_nighean_donn/
http://www.tobarandualchais.co.uk/en/fullrecord/97218/1;jsessionid=F3FF526DC4C88B40F544EE4E1332E1D6
http://www.tobarandualchais.co.uk/en/fullrecord/100031/1
http://totalsketch.com/shed-life/

Outlander: Wool Waulking Songs

Read the post in English

DALLA SAGA OUTLANDER

Diana Gabaldon

Nel libro “”Il ritorno” (capitolo 11) della saga Outlander scritta da Diana Gabaldon Claire è invitata dalle donne di Lallybroch a prendere un tè e assiste alla follatura del tweed che si svolge in un apposito capanno “riservato” alle donne della tenuta
““Hot piss sets the dye fast,” one of the women had explained to me as I blinked, eyes watering, on my first entrance to the shed. The other women had watched at first, to see if I would shrink back from the work, but wool-waulking was no great shock, after the things I had seen and done in France, both in the war of 1944 and the hospital of 1744. Time makes very little difference to the basic realities of life. And smell aside, the waulking shed was a warm, cozy place, where the women of Lallybroch visited and joked between bolts of cloth, and sang together in the working, hands moving rhythmically across a table, or bare feet sinking deep into the steaming fabric as we sat on the floor, thrusting against a partner thrusting back.” continua
Le donne scozzesi hanno elaborato una tecnica particolare per la follatura del tweed, quel tessuto di lana originario dalla Scozia, caldo, resistente e pressoché indistruttibile, utilizzato dai pescatori e pastori per tenersi più al caldo in un clima così freddo e ventoso.
Per infeltrire la lana ma in modo uniforme e migliorane le prestazioni  le pezze di stoffa venivano “maltrattate” da un gruppo di donne sedute introno ad un tavolo (precedentemente immerse in grandi tinozze piene di urina); il movimento della battitura consisteva in 4 tempi: prima si sbatteva il tessuto sul tavolo davanti a sé, poi si sbatteva verso il centro del tavolo, quindi si riportava alla posizione iniziale e infine lo si passava alla donna successiva (in senso orario). Per contare il tempo e rendere meno monotono il lavoro le donne cantavano delle canzoni, c’era la  ban dhuan (ovvero la donna-canzone) che dirigeva il canto, mentre le altre la seguivano nel ritornello. Dopo qualche canzone il tessuto diventava più morbido, ma anche più compatto e resistente.

OUTLANDER TV, stagione I: “Riscossione”

Nella serie televisiva questo scorcio di vita nei villaggi della Scozia settecentesca è sviluppato nel giro di Dougal  Mackenzie di Castel Leoch presso gli affittuari per la riscossione dei tributi. Quasi per caso Clarie sentento delle voci, si avvicina alle donne mentre infeltriscono il tweed.

Outlander I episodio 5: Mo Nighean Donn

Gur e mise tha fo ghruaim
‘S mi ‘n taobh tuath dhan an Stòr.
[Sèist:]
Mo nigh’n donn hò gù Hì rì rì hù lò
Mo nigh’n donn hò gù 
Mo nigh’n donn shònruich mi fhéin thu
ann an broad nam ban òg
[Sèist]
Hì rì rì hù lò Mo nigh’n donn hò gù 
‘S bidh mo làmh na do làimh
[Sèist]
Hì rì rì hù lò Mo nigh’n donn hò gù 
Dh’aindeoin èildeir tha beò.

Traduzione inglese*
Oh how my mind is heavy
as I’m north west of the Storr
My brown haired girl hò gù
Hì rì rì hù lò
My brown haired girl hò gù.
My brown haired girl, I remark thee
At the fair of the young women.
And we will walk hand in hand
Regardless of any living elders.
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
Oh quali pensieri tormentati
mentre sono a nord ovest di Storr (1)
la mia brunetta hò gù
Hì rì rì hù lò
la mia bella brunetta.
O mia brunetta, ti ho notata
al mercato delle belle fanciulle
e cammineremo mano nella mano
nonostante tutti i pettegoli (2)

NOTE
1) il “vecchio uomo di Storr” (the Old Man of Storr) è un pinnacolo di basalto alto una cinquantina di metri che sorge sull’Isola di Skye, la più grande delle Ebridi Interne (Scozia)
2) letteralmente “nonostante tutti gli antenati” cioè a dispetto delle tradizioni. Espressioni simili sono ricorrenti nei canti popolari quando una giovane coppia andava “contro corrente” cioè non si seguivano le tradizioni in merito al corteggiamento: erano i genitori a combinare le unioni, in genere tra persone della stessa classe sociale e mezzi economici, i bei ragazzi ma senza arte ne parte, potevano ricevere il consenso solo in vista di un’improvvisa fortuna  (matrimonio celtico)

 

Clair partecipa alla follatura del tweed e canta insieme alle donne del villaggio. La ban dhuan è Fiona Mackenzie

Le Wool Waulking Songs sono due in  Outlander: Season 1, Vol. 2 (Original Television Soundtrack) 
la prima più veloce “Latha Siubhal Beinne Dhomh“, la seconda vista nel video “Mo Nighean Donn” (un omaggio ai capelli castani di Claire)

Latha Siubhal Beinne Dhomh

Originaria dell’isola di Barra,  la canzone parla di un uomo in giro per le Highland che s’imbatte in una bella fanciulla intenta a raccogliere delle erbe, questi incontri fortuiti nelle brughiere (tra l’erica e la ginestra in fiore) sono il soggetto di molti canti tradizionali della Scozia dalle origini antiche e spesso l’uomo non si limita alla richiesta di un bacetto! La fanciulla lo respinge perchè lo reputa un vagabondo. Come consuetudine nella scelta delle tracce musicali i testi hanno sempre un’attinenza con la storia narrata nella saga.

Hi ill eo ro bha ho
Hi ill eo bhòidheach
‘S na hi ill eo ro bha ho
Latha siubhal beinne dhomh
Latha siubhal mòintich
Thachair orm gruagach
Dhualach, bhòidheach
Sgian bheag na làimh
‘S i ri buain neòinean
‘S i ri buain biolaire
Theann mi null rithe
Dh’ iarr mi pòg oirre
Ud! Ud! Ud-ag araidh! (1)
A bhodachain ròmaich
(‘S ann an taigh m’ athar fhèin
Gheibht’ an còmhlan
Fichead fear adadh ann
Dusan bean cleòca
Tubhailtean geal aca
Sgaoilt’ air bhòrdaibh
Cupannan crèadh’ aca
‘S glainneachan beòraich)

Traduzione inglese*
One day as I was traveling a mountain
A day of traveling moorland
I met a girl
beautiful, tresses in her hair
A little knife in her hand
As she was reaping daisies
As she was reaping watercress
I went over to her
And I asked her for a kiss
“Oh, oh, my! (1)
O hairy old man! (2)
(It’s in my own father’s house
That the company would be found:
Twenty hatted-men (3)
A dozen cloaked women
With white towels
Spread out on tables
With clay cups
And glasses full of beer)”
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
Un giorno che ero in viaggio per i monti
un giorno che ero in viaggio per la brughiera incontrani una ragazza
dalle belle trecce
con un piccolo pugnale tra le mani
stava tagliando delle margherite
e raccoglieva il crescione.
Mi sono avvicinato
e le ho chiesto un bacio.
“Smamma bello
Vattene zoticone!
(Nella mia dimora di famiglia
si trovano nobili genti
una ventina di uomini con il cappello
una dozzina di donne con il mantello
bianche tovaglie
stese sui tavoli
con tazze di percellana
e bicchieri pieni di birra.)”

NOTE
il canto è stato tramandato in una versione più estesa  e le strofe mancanti sono state messe tra parentesi
1) l’espressione tradotta anche come “Hoots toots!”  è un modo colloquiale per respingere una persona sgradita
2) anche tradotto come ” you shaggy old man!” letteralmente “piccolo vecchio peloso” vecchio ha un significato colloquiale che non necessariemnte indica una persione anziana, nel contesto la frase è un appellativo rivolto a un vagabondo malandato, dai capelli lunghi e la barba incolta, anche bifolco
3) indossare il cappello è d’obbligo per un gentiluomo

Mo Nighean Donn

La canzone “Mo Nighean Donn” (la mia ragazza castana) non ha un vero e proprio significato, sembra più altro che la ban dhuan  riferisca i gossip del momento. La versione in  Outlander: Season 1, Vol. 2 (Original Television Soundtrack)  è più lunga rispetto alla versione nelle riprese
Dougie MacLean in Whitewash 1990 
Negli anni 40-50 con il tramonto della lavorazione artigianale (in particolare dell’Harris Tweed) queste canzoni di lavoro sono diventate occasione di session dimostrative o sono passate nei repertori di alcuni gruppi di musica celtica con l’inserimento di parti strumentali e voci maschili.

Gur e mise tha fo ghruaim
‘S mi ‘n taobh tuath dhan an Stòr.
[Sèist]
Mo nigh’n donn hò gù Hì rì rì hù lò
Mo nigh’n donn hò gù
‘N-dràst’ an loch fada choill
‘S nach tig Oighrig nam chòir.
Thog iad a’ mhailisi suas
‘S bheir siud bhuainn gillean òg.
Cha bhi iad a-muigh ach mìos
‘S cha bhi ‘n cianalas oirnn.
Mo nighean donn choisinn cliù
Ann an cùirt nam ban òg.
Mo nighean donn choisinn geall
Far na champaich na seòid.
Tha mi sgìth cur mo lìon
Ann an iochdar gach òb.
Thèid mi null air a’ bheinn
Far eil loinn nam ban òg.
(‘S bidh mo làmh na do làimh
Dh’aindeoin èildeir tha beò.
‘S bhiodh mo làmh mud chùl bhàn
Gad a gheàrrt’ i mun dòrn.
Ach ma ruigeas mise null
Gheibh thu crùin na do dhòrn.
Gheibh thu sin is rud nas fheàrr
Maraiche math làidir òg.)

Traduzione inglese*
Oh how my mind is heavy
as I’m north west of the Storr
My brown haired girl hò gù Hì rì rì hù lò
My brown haired girl hò gù.
Right now I’m in the loch by the forest
And Effie will not be joning me.
The militia has been risen
And that will take away the young lads from us.
They will be out for a month
This will not leave us full of sadness.
My brown haired girl who gained recognition
At the fair of the young women.
My brown haired girl won a bet
Where the warriors were encamped
I’m tired of setting my nets
In the lower parts of each cove.
I will head over the hill
Where there is the beautiful young women.
And we will walk hand in hand
Regardless of any living elders.
And my hand will be around you
Though I’d prefer to embrace you.
And if I manage to reach over to you
You’ll get a crown in your hand.
You’ll get that and something better
A good, young, strong sailor.
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
Oh quali pensieri tormentati
mentre sono a nord ovest di Storr (1)
la mia brunetta hò gù Hì rì rì hù lò
la mia bella brunetta hò gù
In questo momento sono al lago vicino alla foresta
e Effie non mi sta canzonando.
La milizia è stata ripristinata
e questo porterà via i giovani da noi.
Staranno fuori per un mese
questo  non mancherà di lasciarci pieni di tristezza.
O mia moretta , ti ho notata
al mercato delle belle fanciulle
La mia ragazza bruna ha vinto una scommessa
dove erano accampati i guerrieri
Sono stanco di gettare le reti
nelle parti basse di ogni baia.
Io andrò oltre la collina
dove ci sono le belle donne
giovani.
e cammineremo mano nella mano
nonostante tutti i pettegoli(2)
E la mia mano ti terrà stretta
anche se preferirei abbracciarti
E se riuscirò a raggiungerti (3)
ti metterò una corona tra le mani.
Avrai quella e ancor meglio
un bravo marinaio, giovane e forte

NOTE
il canto è stato tramandato in una versione più estesa  e le strofe mancanti sono state messe tra parentesi
1) il “vecchio uomo di Storr” (the Old Man of Storr) è un pinnacolo di basalto alto una cinquantina di metri che sorge sull’Isola di Skye, la più grande delle Ebridi Interne (Scozia)
2) letteralmente “nonostante tutti gli antenati” cioè a dispetto delle tradizioni. Espressioni simili sono ricorrenti nei canti popolari quando una giovane coppia andava “contro corrente” cioè non si seguivano le tradizioni in merito al corteggiamento: erano i genitori a combinare le unioni, in genere tra persone della stessa classe sociale e mezzi economici, i bei ragazzi ma senza arte ne parte, potevano ricevere il consenso solo in vista di un’improvvisa fortuna .
3) il ragazzo è partito per mare in cerca di un buon guadagno, al suo ritorno le chiederà di sposarlo

 

LINK
http://www.bbc.co.uk/alba/oran/orain/latha_siubhal_beinne_dhomh/
http://s3.spanglefish.com/s/10130/documents/songs/latha%20siubhal%20beinne%20dhomh.pdf
https://virtualgael.files.wordpress.com/2017/05/lathasiubhalbeinne.pdf
http://www.tobarandualchais.co.uk/en/fullrecord/39128/10
http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/alltandubh/orain/Latha_Siubhal_Beinne.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/alba/oran/orain/mo_nighean_donn/
http://www.tobarandualchais.co.uk/en/fullrecord/97218/1;jsessionid=F3FF526DC4C88B40F544EE4E1332E1D6
http://www.tobarandualchais.co.uk/en/fullrecord/100031/1
http://totalsketch.com/shed-life/

Outlander: Baroque Boogie Woogie

Read the post in English

DAL LIBRO LA STRANIERA

Diana Gabaldon

Nel primo libro della saga Outlander scritto da Diana Gabaldon il capitolo 34 è dedicato alla ricerca dello scomparso Jamie e Claire si accompagna al  fedele e inossidabile Roger Murtaugh. Improvvisandosi imbonitori (nel tentativo di attrarre l’attenzione di Jamie affinchè si metta in contatto con loro) i due si esibiscono nelle taverne e nelle fiere con Murtaugh come principale intrattenitore e Claire che lo accompagna nel canto, arrangiandosi anche come chiromante. La canzone che è menzionata nel libro è la ballata del Border “The Dowie Dens of Yarrow“.

OUTLANDER TV: “The Search”

Claire Fraser (Caitriona Balfe) in “The Search.”, travestita da uomo

Nell’episodio 14 “The Search” della serie televisiva Outlander (prima stagione) Murtaugh ( interpretato dall’attore Danny Glover) è invece un ballerino un po’ maldestro e Claire non proprio versata per il canto, ma neanche stonata, spera di vivacizzare l’esibizione di un danzatore appena passabile, canticchiando un boogie woogie molto popolare ai suoi tempi, il 1945; il motivetto piace subito a Murtaugh  (nonostante il divario culturale tra la musica popolare d’epoca barocca e la musica popolare del XX secolo) ma le consiglia di abbinarlo ad un testo più da bawdy song che il pubblico del 1743 saprà meglio apprezzare: “The Reels o’ Bogie”


I
Here’s to all you lads and lasses
That go out this way.
Be sure to tip your coggie
When you take her out to play
Lads and lasses toy a kiss,
The lads never think
What they do is amiss
Chorus
Because there’s Kent and keen
And there’s Aberdeen
And there’s naan as muckle
as the Strath of boogie-woogie
II
For every lad’ll wander
Just to have his lass
An’ when they see her pintle rise,
They’ll raise a glass
And rowe about their wanton een
They dance a reel as the troopers
Go over the lea
Chorus
A-root, a-toot
A rooty-a-doot
A-root, a-toot
A rooty-a-doot
III
He giggled, goggled me
He was a banger
He sought the prize between my thighs
Became a hanger
Chorus
And no there’s naan as muckle
As the wanton tune
Of strath of boogie
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
I
Per tutti voi dame e messeri
che andate per questa via
Ricordatevi di bere un sorso (1)
quando state in compagnia (2)
uomini e donne si scambiano un bacio, ma gli uomini non pensano mai
che quello che fanno è scorretto
Coro
Perché dal Kent al Border(3)
e fino all’Aberdeen
non c’è una valle ampia (4)
come 
la valle del boogie (5) woogie
II
Perché ogni uomo andrà in giro
solo per trovare una donna
e quando lei si concederà (6)
alzeranno il calice
e gettando occhiate (7) lascive
danzeranno un reel (8) mentre  le truppe ricontrollano i pascoli (9)
Chorus
A-root, a-toot
A rooty-a-doot
A-root, a-toot
A rooty-a-doot
III
Ridacchiava, mi faceva gli occhi dolci
era il membro di una banda (10).
e cercando il premio tra le mie cosce
si trasformava in uno spadino (11)
Coro
Non c’è una valle ampia
come la melodia spericolata
della valle del boogie

NOTE
1) doppio senso: coggie (vezzeggiativo) o cog è la scodella, ciotola di legno per bere. Una tipica tazza scozzese cerimoniale con due manici detta quaich (quaigh o quoich), tradizionalmente realizzate in legno, con fasce come quelle di una botte tenute insieme da un cerchio di salice o d’argento; oggi sono in gran parte d’argento. Uno vero scozzese, per salutarvi, vi offrirà l’ultimo sorso di whisky in un quaich, per
simboleggiare la vostra amicizia.
2) il play è chiaramente un “gioco” erotico
3) “Kent and keen” Kent è una contea nella parte sud-est dell’Inghilterra, dove si trovano le bianche scogliere di Dover quindi il punto (per i viaggiatori dal continente) più a sud: in senso lato vuol dire “Dal Sud al Nord” keen non è una contea e nemmeno un  villaggio, forse un vecchio termine per il Border, potrebbere essere usato come assonanza e stare per “dal  Kent dal forte vento” o qualcosa del genere
4) strath è una  valle fluviale che è ampia e poco profonda (al contrario del glen una vallata tipicamente più stretta e profonda).
5) il “Bogie” è un torrente nell’Aberdeenshire, che attraversa la bella valle o strath del Bogie.  Strathbogie però è anche il nome di una cittadina nella contea dell’Aberdeenshire detta Milton of Strathbogie
6) ancora un doppio senso pintle è il piolo di un cardine, o un bullone
7) een  sta per “even”= Evening letteralmente “rotolandosi senza inibizioni nella notte; oppure een è il prurale di “eye” “to roll one’s eyes” roteare gli occhi , la frase diventa “roteando gli occhi maliziosi, lascivi”
8) to dance a reel è ancora un doppio senso il reel è una tipica melodia da danza in cui i ballerini eseguono giravolte e descrivono intrecci.
9) le giubbe rosse vanno a pattugliare le highlands in cerca di ribelli o facinorosi. Il riferimento è calzante con la situazione della narrazione
10) nello slang americano sta per  gangbanger =  membro di una banda di tipacci
ma nel 1700 è uno che canta a voce alta (banda musicale)
11) doppio senso

Murtaugh  con movenze un po’ orsine balla sulle spade incrociate a tempo di Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy Of Company B

LA REALTA’ STORICA

“The Reels o’ Bogie” è una canzoncina ricca di doppi sensi del 1700 dalle molte versioni (se ne contano 5) tra le quali una attribuita al Duca Alexander Gordon su musica arrangiata da J. Haydn ancora cantata nei salotti lirici.

Hob. XXXIa no. 55, JHW. XXXII/1 no. 55 in “Haydn: Scottish and Welsh Songs”, Vol. 1, 2009 (ascolta su Spotify).


I
There’s cauld kail in Aberdeen,
And castocks in Stra’bogie,
Gin I hae but a bonny lass,
Ye’re welcome to your cogie.
And ye may sit up a’ the night,
And drink till it be braid daylight;
Gie me a lass baith clean and tight,
To dance the Reel of Bogie.
II
In cotillons the French excel,
John Bull in countra dances;
The Spaniards dance fandangos well,
Mynheer an all’mand prances;
In foursome reels the Scots delight,
The threesome maist dance wound’rous light;
But twasome ding a’ out o’ sight,
Danc’d to the Reel of Bogie.
III
Now a’ the lads ha’e done their best,
Like true men of Stra’bogie;
We’ll stop a while and tak a rest,
And tipple out a cogie;
Come now, my lads, and tak your glass,
And try ilk other to surpass,
In wishing health to every lass
To dance the Reel of Bogie.
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
I
Abbiamo zuppa fredda ad Aberdeen
e gambi di cavolo a Strathbogie,
e se c’è una bella ragazza
che sia la benvenuta al brindisi!
Ti puoi sedere per tutta la notte
e bere finchè spunterà la luce del giorno: datemi un ragazza fresca e soda, per ballare il Reel del Bogie.
II
Nel Cotillon i Francesi eccellono,
gli Inglesi nella Contraddanza;
gli Spagnoli danzano bene il Fandango, i Tedeschi il ballo alemanno,
gli Scozzesi si dilettano nel reel a quattro (quadriglia), il trio
ballerà in modo mirabile
ma la coppia andrà a nascondersi
per ballare il Reel del Bogie.
III
Ora che tutti i signori hanno fatto del loro meglio, come veri uomini di Strathbogie, ci fermeremo un po’ per riposarci, e bere un sorso.
Venite signori, e prendete il bicchiere e cercate di superare tutti gli altri nel bere alla salute di ogni ragazza che danza il Reel del Bogie

Lo stesso Robert Burns ne riarrangia una con il titolo “There’s cauld kail in Aberdeen” allungando con versi di suo pugno (i primo tre) la versione tradizionale riportata  da David Herd nel suo “Scots Songs” (1776, vol II).

ASCOLTA Jean Redpath in Songs of Robert Burns Vol 1 & 2, 1996 su Spotify. La versione di Ewan McColl ricalca sostanzialmente quella di Jean.


I
Cauld kail (1)  in Aberdeen
And castocks (2)  in Strabogie
But yet I fear they’ll cook o’er soon,
And never warm the coggie (3).
II
My coggie, Sirs, my coggie, Sirs,
I cannot want my coggie;
I wadna gie my three-gir’d cap (4)
For e’er a quine (5) on Bogie.
III
There’s Johnie Smith has got a wife
That scrimps him o’ his coggie,
If she were mine, upon my life
I wad douk her in a Bogie.
IV
My coggie, Sirs, my coggie, Sirs,
I cannot want my coggie;
I wadna gie my three-girr’d cap
For e’er a quine on Bogie
V
There’s cauld kail in Aberdeen,
And castocks in Strabogie;
When ilka lad maun hae his lass,
Then fye, gie me my coggie.
VI
The lasses about Bogie gicht (6)
Their limbs, they are sae clean and tight (7),
That if they were but girded right,
They’ll dance the reel of Bogie (8).
VII
Wow, Aberdeen, what did you mean,
Sae young a maid to woo, Sir (9)?
I’m sure it was nae joke to her,
Whate’er it was to you, Sir.
VIII
For lasses  (10) now are nae sae blate
But they ken auld folk’s out o’ date,
And better playfare can they get
Than castocks in Strabogie.
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
I
Zuppa fredda ad Aberdeen
e gambi di cavolo a Strathbogie,
temo che cucineranno velocemente senza riscaldare la scodella.
II
La mia scodella, signori, la mia scodella
non voglio altro che la mia scodella: darei la mia scodella con tre manici, di continuo, a una servetta sul Bogie
III
Johnie Smith ha una moglie
che lesina sulla sua razione (di zuppa),
se fosse la mia, giuro
che la getterei nel Bogie
IV
La mia scodella, signori, la mia scodella
non voglio altro che la mia scodella: darei la mia scodella con tre manici, di continuo, a una servetta sul Bogie
V
Zuppa fredda ad Aberdeen
e gambi di cavolo a Strathbogie,
ogni uomo deve avere la sua amica,
allora sbrigati, dammi la mia scodella.
VI
Le ragazze di Bogingicht
braccia e gambe, sono così fresche e sode (strette)
che non appena le stringi per bene
ballano il reel del Bogie.
VII
Signore di  Aberdeen, cosa vi era preso ad amoreggiare con una così giovane servetta? Di certo non era una facezia per lei, qualunque cosa fosse per voi.
VIII
Perchè le ragazze oggi non sono così timide e sanno come ottenere giocattoli migliori che i vecchi superati  gambi di cavolo nella valle del Bogie (a Strathbogie).

NOTE
1) Kail o kale è una varietà di cavolo cucinato in Inghilterra nella zuppa, forse un tempo aveva il significato di pietanza appetitosa,  ‘castocks’ sono i gambi del cavolo. Ma i doppi sensi si sprecano. La pietanza riscaldata non è poi così gustosa come sembra!
2) Strathbogie potrebbe essere  sia la valle del Bogie ma anche la cittadina Milton of Strathbogie (oggi Huntly) dimora storica del reggimento di Gordon Highlanders, tradizionalmente reclutato in tutto il nord-est della Scozia.
3) coggie è la tazza o scodella, per  sorbire la zuppa o mangiare il porridge. Il senso è “finiranno presto e riscalderanno appena la zuppa” e chi ha orecchie per intendere, intenda
4) Cap (cup) ha lo stesso significato di cog e infatti in alcune versioni è scritto three-girr’d cog (coggie);  three-girred = surrounded with three hoops, three-ringed cup
5) quine è un termine arcaico per donna, ma ha diversi significati può voler dire moglie oppure figlia,  indicare una servetta o ancora essere usato in termini dispregiativi
6) se considerata una parola divisa gicht=saucy; ma scritto anche come Bogingicht; Bog of Gight o Bogengight era l’antica designazione della sede della damiglia ducale di Seton-Gordon, oggi Gordon Castle
7) letteralmente pulite e strette
8) doppio senso
9) si mette in ridicolo un vecchio (forse il Lord di quelle terre) che si ostina a corteggiare le giovani ragazze!
10) sottointeso le ragazze di Bogingicht

E ovviamente c’è anche una scottish country dance con il titolo Cauld Kail in Aberdeen!!

E un reel irlandese dallo stesso titolo!

FONTI
https://carrielt21.wordpress.com/2015/05/14/scotlands-burns-and-outlander-rival-shakespeares-bawdy/
https://carrielt21.wordpress.com/2015/05/16/adapted-bawdy-lyrics-outlander-tv-series-episode-114-the-search/
http://www.outlandercast.com/2016/01/top-ten-musical-moments-of-season-1.html

https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Book_of_Scottish_Song/Cauld_Kail_in_Aberdeen_1
http://www.burnsscotland.com/items/v/volume-ii,-song-162,-page-170-cauld-kail-in-aberdeen.aspx
http://www.bartleby.com/333/222.html
http://www.lieder.net/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=92760

http://www.rscds-swws.org/news/200707/vol24-1.htm

https://www.scottish-country-dancing-dictionary.com/dance-crib/cauld-kail.html
https://eatthetable.com/2014/04/30/147/
https://biblio.wiki/wiki/Songs_of_Robert_Burns/There%27s_cauld_kail_in_Aberdeen

https://thesession.org/tunes/3307
http://www.musicanet.org/robokopp/scottish/cauldkai.htm
http://tunearch.org/wiki/Annotation:Reel_of_Bogie_(1)_(The)
http://www.tunearch.org/wiki/Annotation:Reel_of_Bogie_(2)

Outlander, chapter 34: The Dowie Dens of Yarrow

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FROM OUTLANDER BOOK

The Dowie Dens of Yarrow – a ballad from the Scottish Border. Murtagh teaches this song to Claire when they travel together looking for Jamie after he is taken by the Watch.
(continue “The Search” Outlander Tv season I)

“The Dowie Dens of Yarrow”, “The Dewy Dens of Yarrow” or  “The Breas of Yarrow”, “The Banks of Yarrow” exists in many variants in Child’s book ( The O Braes’ Yarrow Child ballad  IV, # 214). The story was also told in the poem by William Hamilton, published in Tea-Table Miscellany (Allan Ramsay, 1723) and also in  Reliques (Thomas Percy, vol II 1765): Hamilton was inspired by an old Scottish ballad of the oral tradition (see)
Kenneth S. Goldstein commented “Child printed nineteen texts of this beautiful Scottish tragic ballad, the oldest dating from the 18th century. Sir Walter Scott, who first published it in his Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border (1803), believed that the ballad referred to a duel fought at the beginning of the 17th century between John Scott of Tushielaw and Walter Scott of Thirlestane in which the latter was slain. Child pointed out inaccuracies in this theory but tended to give credence to the possibility that the ballad did refer to an actual occurrence in Scott family history that was not too far removed from that of the ballad tale.
In a recent article, Norman Cazden discussed various social and historical implications of this ballad (and its relationship to Child 215, Rare Willie Drowned in Yarrow), as well as deriding Scott’s theories as to its origin.” (see Mainly Norfolk)
ETTRICK FOREST
The area is a sort of “Bermuda triangle” of the Celtic world, a strip of land rich in traditional tales of fairy raptures and magical apparitions!
(see also the Tam lin ballad)

The hero of the ballad was a knight of great bravery, popularly believed to be John Scott, sixth son of the Laird of Harden. According to history, he met a treacherous and untimely death in Ettrick Forest at the hands of his kin, the Scotts of Gilmanscleugh in the seventeenth century.

Newark Castle sullo Yarrow: not the castle of the ballad but a possible setting

THE AGREEMENT OVER  YARROW’S VALLEY

The song describes a young man (perhaps a border reiver) killed in an ambush near the Yarrow river by the brothers of the woman he loved. In some versions, the lady rejects nine suitors in preference for a servant or ploughman; the nine make a pact to kill the her real lover, in other they are men sent by the lady’s father.The reiver manages to kill or wound his assailants but eventually falls, pierced by the youngest of them.

The lady may see the events in a dream, some versions of the song end with the lady grieving, in others she dies of grief.
The structure is the classical one of the ancient ballads with the revealing of the story between the questions and answers of the protagonists and the commonplace of the death announced to the parents.

Paton-Yarrow
Sir Joseph Noel Paton: The Dowie Dens of Yarrow

So many textual versions and different melodies, which I have grouped into three strands.

FIRST VERSION

The melody was collected by Lucy Broadwood  from John Potts of Whitehope Farm, Peeblesshire, published in The Journal of the Folk Song Society, vol.V (1905).

Matthew White (Canadian countertenor): Skye Consort in the Cd “O Sweet Woods 2013”, the arrangement is very interesting, with a Baroque atmosphere that echoes the era in which the first version is traced. Only verses I, II, IV, V, VI, VIII and XIV are performed

Mad Pudding in Dirt & Stone -1996 (except V verse) listen

I
There lived a lady in  the north (1);
You could scarcely find her marrow (2).
She was courted by nine noblemen
On the dewy dells (3) of Yarrow (4)
II
Her father had a bonny ploughboy (5)
And she did love him dearly.
She dressed him up like a noble lord
For to fight for her on Yarrow(6).
III
She kissed his cheek, she kamed his hair,
As oft she had done before O (7),
She gilted him with a right good sword
For to fight for her on Yarrow.
IV
As he climbed up yon high hill
And they came down the other,
There he spied nine noblemen
On the dewy dells of Yarrow.
V
‘Did you come here for to drink red wine,
Or did you come here to borrow?
Or did you come here with a single sword
For to fight for her on Yarrow?’
VI
‘I came not here for to drink red wine,
And I came not here to borrow,
But I came here with a single sword
For to fight for her on Yarrow’
VII
‘There are nine of you and one of me,
And that’s but an even number,
But it’s man to man I’ll fight you all
And die for her on Yarrow’
VIII
Three he drew and three he slew
And two lie deadly wounded,
When a stubborn knight crept up behind
And pierced him with his arrow.
IX
‘Go home, go home, my false young man,
And tell your sister Sarah
That her true lover John lies dead and gone/ On the dewy dells of Yarrow’
X
As he gaed down yon high hill
And she came down the other,
It’s then he met his sister dear
A-coming fast to Yarrow.
XI
‘O brother dear, I had a dream last night,’
‘I can read it into sorrow;
Your true lover John lies dead and gone/ On the dewy dells of Yarrow.’
XII
This maiden’s hair was three-quarters long (8),
The colour of it was yellow.
She tied it around his middle side (9)
And she carried him home to Yarrow.
XIII
She kissed his cheeks, she kamed his hair
As oft she had done before O,
Her true lover John lies dead and gone,
on the dewy dells of Yarrow.
XIV
O mother dear, make me my bed,
And make it long and narrow,
For the one that died for me today,
I shall die for him tomorrow
XV
‘O father dear, you have seven sons;
You can wed them all tomorrow,
For the fairest flower amongst them all (9)
Is the one that died on Yarrow.

NOTE
1) the north is not only a geographical location but a code word  in balladry for a sad story
2) marrow= a companion, a bosom friend, a kindred spirit (a husband)
3) dowue, dewy= sad, melancholy, dreary, dismal
Dens, dells= a narrow valley or ravine, usually wooded, a dingle
4) Yarrow is a river but also an officinal herb, Achillea millefolium. So the definition of the place “the valleys of the Yarrow” becomes more vague but also symbolic: the yarrow is a plant associated with death, and in popular beliefs the sign of a mourning.
From the healing powers already known in the times of Homer and used by the Druids, the plant is the main ingredient of a magic potion worthy of the secret recipe of the Panoramix druid. It is said that in the Upper Valle del Lys (Valle d’Aosta, Italy) the Salassi were great consumers of a drink that infused courage and strength. It became known as Ebòlabò and it is a drink still prepared by the inhabitants of the valley based on “achillea moscata”.
5) In some versions the boy is a country man but not necessarily a peasant, rather a cadet son of a small country nobility. Near Yarrow (Yarrow Krik) there is still a stone with an ancient inscription near a place called the “Warrior’s rest“.
6) Matthew White
“She killed here with a single sword
On the dewy dells of Yarrow”
7) the typical behavior of a devoted wife who looks after, combs and dresses her husband, the same care and devotion that she will give to the corpse
8)  In the Middle Ages the girls wore very long hair knotted in a thick braid
9) some interpret the verse as an expression of mourning in which the girl cuts her long hair (that reaches her knees) up to her waist. The phrase literally means, however, that she uses her hair to carry away the corpse interweaving them like a rope. The image is a little grotesque for our standards, but it must have been a common practice at the time
10) the verse says that the handsome peasant was the bravest of all, certainly not the brother!

“ERICA FUNESTA”

Second version: the lady makes a dream in which she is picking up the red heather on the slopes of the Yarrow, an omen of misfortune.
A Scottish legend explains how the common  heather has become white: Malvina, daughter of a Celtic bard, was engaged to a warrior named Oscar. Oscar was killed in battle, and the messenger that delivered the news gave her heather as a token of Oscar’s love. As her tears fell on the heather, it turned white.  Since then the white heather is the emblem of faithful love; the resemblance to the Norse legend of Baldur and the mistletoe is surprising.

Karine Powart version shows us the most extensive text of the ballad that the Pentangle translate into English and reduce to 7 verses

Bert Jansh  Yarrow, in Moonshine (1973).

 The Pentangle in Open the Door, 1985 ( I, II, III, IV, VI, VIII, XIII)

I
There was a lady in the north
You scarce would find her marrow
She was courted by nine gentlemen
And a plooboy lad fae Yarrow
II
Well, nine sat drinking at the wine
As oft they’d done afore O
And they made a vow amang themselves
Tae fight for her on Yarrow
III
She’s washed his face, she’s combed his hair,/ As she has done before,
She’s placed a brand down by his side,
To fight for her on Yarrow.
IV
So he’s come ower yon high, high hill
And doon by the den sae narrow
And there he spied nine armed men
Come tae fight wi’ him on Yarrow
V
He says, “There’s nine o’ you and but one o’ me/ It’s an unequal marrow”
But I’ll fight ye a’ noo one by one
On the Dowie Dens o’ Yarrow
VI (1)
So it’s three he slew and three withdrew
An’ three he wounded sairly
‘Til her brother, he came in beyond
And he wounded him maist foully
VII
“Gae hame, gae hame, ye fause young man
And bring yer sister sorrow
For her ain true love lies pale and wan
On the Dowie Dens o’ Yarrow”
VIII
“Oh mither, (2) I hae dreamed a dream
A dream o’ doul and sorrow
I dreamed I was pu’ing the heathery bells (3)
On the Dowie Dens o’ Yarrow”
IX
“Oh daughter dear, I ken yer dream
And I doobt it will bring sorrow
For yer ain true love lies pale and wan
On the Dowie Dens o’ Yarrow”
X
An’ so she’s run ower yon high, high hill
An’ doon by the den sae narrow
And it’s there she spied her dear lover John
Lyin’ pale and deid on Yarrow
XI
And so she’s washed his face an’ she’s kaimed his hair
As aft she’d done afore O
And she’s wrapped it ‘roond her middle sae sma’ (4)
And she’s carried him hame tae Yarrow
XII
“Oh haud yer tongue, my daughter dear/ What need for a’ this sorrow?
I’ll wed ye tae a far better man
Than the one who’s slain on Yarrow”
XIII
“Oh faither, ye hae seven sons
And ye may wed them a’ the morrow
But the fairest floo’er amang them a’
Was the plooboy lad fae Yarrow”
XIV
“Oh mother, mother mak my bed
And mak it saft and narrow
For my love died for me this day
And I’ll die for him tomorrow”

NOTE
8) qui il verso risulta un po’ oscuro mancando il particolare dei lunghi capelli di lei annodati in treccia che diventano corde da traino per portare il cadavere a casa
1) The Pentangle
It’s three he’s wounded, and three withdrew,
And three he’s killed on Yarrow,
2) The Pentangle say “father
3) heather bell is the name of the  Erica cinerea ; a Scottish legend explains how the common  heather has become white: Malvina, daughter of a Celtic bard, was engaged to a warrior named Oscar. Oscar was killed in battle, and the messenger that delivered the news gave her heather as a token of Oscar’s love. As her tears fell on the heather, it turned white.  Since then the white heather is the emblem of faithful love; the resemblance to the Norse legend of Baldur and the mistletoe is surprising.

THE HEATHERY HILLS OF YARROW

It’s Bothy band version that begins the story from the ambush and develops the dialogue between the lady and her relatives until her tragic death.
Bothy band (Tríona Ní Dhomhnaill voice) in After hours, 1979

I
It’s three drew and three slew,
And three lay deadly wounded,
When her brother John stepped in between,
And stuck his knife right through him.
II
As she went up yon high high hill,
And down through yonder valley,
Her brother John came down the glen,
Returning home from Yarrow.
III
Oh brother dear I dreamt last night
I’m afraid it will bring sorrow,
I dreamt that you were spilling blood,
On the dewy dens of Yarrow.
IV
Oh sister dear I read your dream,
I’m afraid it will bring sorrow,
For your true love John lies dead and gone
On the heathery hills of Yarrow.
V
This fair maid’s hair being three quarters long,
And the colour it was yellow,
She tied it round his middle waist,
And she carried him home from Yarrow.
VI
Oh father dear you’ve got seven sons,
You can wed them all tomorrow,
But a flower like my true love John,
Will never bloom in Yarrow.
VII
This fair maid she being tall and slim,
The fairest maid in Yarrow,
She laid her head on her father’s arm,
And she died through grief and sorrow.

References
https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Child%27s_Ballads/214
http://literaryballadarchive.com/PDF/Hamilton_1_Braes_of_Yarrow_f.pdf
http://www.fresnostate.edu/folklore/ballads/C214.html
http://mainlynorfolk.info/folk/songs/thedowiedensofyarrow.html
http://www.joe-offer.com/folkinfo/forum/145.html
http://www.joe-offer.com/folkinfo/songs/484.html
http://www.joe-offer.com/folkinfo/songs/67.html
http://www.celticlyricscorner.net/polwart/dowie.htm
http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/families/scotts_harden.htm
http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=9870
http://fallingangelslosthighways.blogspot.it/2013/04/the-eildon-hills-sacred-mountains-of.html
http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=46972

Outlander: Gradh Geal Mo Chridhe

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In the “Outlander” book  Diana Gabaldon narrates the journey through time of Claire Randall who, crossing a circle of stones near Inverness (Scotland), is magically catapulted two hundred years back in the mid-eighteenth century. Runned into some highlanders, she is taken to Castel Leoch  to meet the chief clan, Colum McKenzie.

In the evening entertainment the Welsh bard Gwyllyn (Gillebrìde MacMillan)performs two song “The Woman of Balnain” and “Gradh Geal Mo Chridhe” (Fair love of my Heart)  a scottish slow air in which a man is heartbroken after being forsaken by the girl he loves, rearranged  by Marjorie Kennedy-Fraser as Eriskay Love Lilt  because she listened the gaelic song at Eriskay.

Bheir mi o hua ho,  the original version 
Contributors – Marion MacInnes  from Tobar Dualchais
Summary – This is a love song in which a man remembers how he used to meet the girl he loved. His love for her has made him very sad. He is not yet married but hopes he will be. He promises that he will work hard, so that the couple can have what they need. Permission from her family is needed, but her agreement is more important than anything else.
 

Ishbel MacAskill in Sioda 1994 (II, IV, V, VI)
Alison Helzer & Tonn Nua in Carolan’s Welcome,  2010 ( I, IV, V)

English translation
Chorus:
Bheir mi ò hu ò hò
Bheir mi ò hu ò hò
Bheir mi ò hu ò hò
I am sad and you are not with me
I
Many nights wet and cold
I took a trip all by myself
Until I reached the place
Where was my heart’s fair love
II
When I went to the glen
My heart was enthralled
Since you did not give me your hand
I thought you wouldn’t leave me
III
There’s no music in my harp
My fingers knew naught but pain,
Then your kiss, made me wounded
Brought song to my life again.
IV
I would plow for you and reap
I’d support you and you’d want for nothing
I would take from the hard gravel
A living for my love
V
Although we are not yet married
I hope we will be
As long as there is strength in my two fists
We will want for nothing
VI
You left my eye tearful
You left my heart broken
You left me with a sickly pallor
My hair is thinned
Scottish gaelic
Sèist:
Bheir mi ò hu ò hò
Bheir mi ò hu ò hì
Bheir mi ò hu ò hò
‘S mi fo bhròn ‘s tu gam dhìth
I
‘S iomadh oidhche fliuch is fuar,
Ghabh mi cuairt is mi leam fhìn;
Gus an d’ ràinig mi an t-àite
Far robh gràdh geal mo chridh’.
II
‘N àm bhith cromadh ris a’ghleann
Thàinig snaidhm air mo chridh’
Bho nach d’thug thu dhomh do làmh
‘S mi’n dùil nach fhàgadh tu mi
III
Na mo chlàrsach cha robh ceòl,
Na mo mheòirean cha robh àgh,
Rinn do phòg-sa mo leòn,
Fhuair mi eòlas air dàn.
IV
Dhèanainn treabhadh dhuit is buan
Chumainn suas thu gun dìth
Bheirinn as a’ ghreabhal chruaidh
Do mo luaidh teachd an tìr
V
Ged nach eil sinn fhathast pòsd’
Tha mi’n dòchas gum bi
Fhad’ ‘s a mhaireas mo dhà dhòrn
Cha bhith lòn oirnn a dhìth
VI
Dh’fhàg thu sìlteach mo shùil
Dh’fhàg thu tùrsach mo chridh’
Dh’fhàg thu tana-glas mo shnuadh
‘S thug thu ghruag bhàrr mo chìnn

IRISH VERSION

The Irish version of the song is from Rathlin Island, a transposition from the Scottish Gaelic

Condon O’ Connor

english translation Kay McCarthy
Carry me over Oro van O 
Carry me over Oro van O
Carry me over
I’m  miserable and missing you.
II
Many a night both wet and cold
I wandered by myself
Until I came to this place
Wherein dwelt the love of my heart
II
In my   harp there was no music
In my fingers there was no power
Until you announced your intention
And I got to know my destiny
Irish gaelic
Bheir mí ó, óró bhean ó
Bheir mí ó, óró bhean í,
Bheir mí óró óhó,
Tá mé brónach, ‘s tú im’ dhíth.
I
‘S iomaí oíche fliuch is fuar
Thug mé cuairt is mé liom féin,
Nó go ráinig mé san áit
Mar a raibh stór gheal mo chléibh.
II
I mo chláirseach ní raibh ceol,
I mo mheoraigh ní raibh brí,
Nó gur luaigh tú do rún,
‘S d’fhuair mé eolas ar mo dhán.

LINK
http://www.celticlyricscorner.net/cormack/gradh.htm
https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=31628
http://ingeb.org/songs/vairmeor.html
http://www.celticlyricscorner.net/macaskill/gradh.htm

Outlander chapter 24: Up Among the Heather

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FROM OUTLANDER BOOK

Diana Gabaldon

A traditional Scottish song that Jamie sings as he leaves Claire one morning at Leoch to go off to work in the stables.
“.. singing rahter loudly the air from “Up Among the Heather”. The refrain floated back from the stairwell:
Sittin’ wi’ a wee girl holdin’ on my knee
When a bumblebee stung me, weel above the kneeee
Up among the heather, on the head o’ Bendikee

There are a lot of Scottish folk songs that tell of romantic encounters “amang the heather” this one is set over Bennachie Hills, the most famous and well-known of northeastern Scotland.
Located in the Garioch between the Don and the Gadie, Bennachie are a range of hills in Aberdeenshire. A destination for excursions, along many paths and running races like the Bennachie Hill Race. On the Mither Tap (the mother’s breast that takes its name from its shape) you can still visit the ruins of a Pitti fortress.

“Mither Tap” of Bennachie (Ian Johnston) -(see also here  and here)

UP AMONG THE HEATHER

“Up Amang The Heather” or “The Hill of Bennachie” shares its melody with another traditional scottish song “Come All Ye Fisher Lasses”.

The song is a classic bothy ballad with bawdy lyrics! The poet talks the talk, but doesn’t walk because first he tells of having had fun (all day long) with a fine girl, but then he advises ladies not to give more than a kiss to a soldier!

From the Highlands of Robert Burns  to the Moorlands of Emily Bronte, and up to the Baraggia of Vercellese (Northern Italy), heather and erica populate the moorlands. “Calluna is differentiated from erica by its corolla and calyx each being in four parts instead of five, Calluna is sometimes referred to as Summer (or Autumn) heather to distinguish it from winter or spring flowering species of Erica.” (from wiki)
A branch of wild white heather is a lucky charm in Scotland and is donated to wish a happy marriage. Once upon a time the Scottish girls who ventured alone on the moor always wore a sprig of heather to protect themselves from rape and robbery (or to make a lucky encounter).

The Irish Ramblers in The Patriot Game (1963) ( II and IV) -aka the Clancy Brothers

The Irish Rovers  the group has repeatedly recorded the song, this version is taken from “Still Rovin’” 1968

Up among the heather on the hill o’ Bennachie(1)
rolling with a wee lass (2) underneath a tree
A bum-bee stung me well above the knee
Up among the heather on the hill o’ Bennachie
I
As I went out a-roving on a summer’s day
I spied a bonnie lassie (3) strolling on the brae (4)
she was picking wild berries (5) and I offered her a hand
saying “Maybe I can help you fill your wee tin can(6)”
II (7)
Says “I me bonnie lass are you going to spend the day
up among the heather where the lads (8) and lassies play
they’re hugging and they’re kissing and they’re making fancy free
among the blooming heather on the hill o’ Bennachie”
III
We sat down together and I held her in me arms
I hugged her and I kissed her taken by her charms then
I took out me fiddle(9) and I fiddled merrily
among the blooming heather on the hill o’ Bennachie
IV (10)
Come all you bonnie lessies and take my advice
and never let a soldier laddie kiss you more than twice.
For all the time he’s kissing you he’s thinking out a plan
To get a wee bit rattle at your ould (11) tin can.

NOTE
1) (Irish Ramblers)
Up among the heather on the hellabenafee
It was there I had a bonny wee lass sitting on my knee
A bungbee stung me well above the knee
We rested down together on the hellabenafee
2) wee lass= tiny girl
3) bonnie lassie= fine girl
4) brae= hill
5)  a midsummer party called Bilberry Sunday (in Scotland “Blaeberry” in Ireland “Fraughan”). It was mostly celebrated in July, when the blueberry berries ripen or in August, often combined with the Lughnasa Celtic festival or on Sunday (or Monday) closest to the party. Once upon a time the youths and the young girls were up the hills on the moor from morning to evening gathering blueberries and making friends, it was therefore a party dedicated to courtship and to combine marriages (under the good offices of Lugh).
6) wee tin can =  female sexual organ
7) (Irish Ramblers)
Said I me bonny wee lassie are ya going to spend the day
Up amongst the heather on the hellabenafee
Where all the lads and lassies they’re having a sobree
Up among the heather on the hellabenafee
8) lads= boys
9) fiddle= male sexual organ
10)  (Irish Ramblers)
Said I me bonny wee lassie please take my advice
Don’t ever let a soldier laddie love you more than twice
For all the time you do, he’s a fixing how to plan
How to get a wee-be rattle at your old tin can
11) ould= old

Mary Mac
 Bennachie (“Gin I Were Where The Gadie Runs”)
O’er the moor amang the heather

SOURCES
http://ontanomagico.altervista.org/baraggia.htm#brugo
https://mainlynorfolk.info/folk/songs/upamongtheheather.html
https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=156417 http://www.horntip.com/mp3/1960s/1962ca_lyrica_erotica_vol_2
_a_wee_thread_o_blue_(LP)/09_the_hill_of_bennachie.htm

Outlander: Skye boat song

Leggi in italiano.

“E LA BARCA VA”

charlie e flora
Flora and the Prince

After the ruinous battle of Culloden (1746) Charles Stuart, then twenty-six, escaped and remained hidden for several months, protected by his faithful.
Flora MacDonald (1722 – 1790), was 24 when he met the Bonnie Prince and helped him to leave the Hebrides; we see them depicted into a boat at the mercy of the waves, she wraps in her shawl and looks at the horizon as the sun sets, he rows with enthusiasm.
(here’s how it actually went: Il Principe e la Ballerina)

THE CROSSING AT SEA: THE ESCAPE OF CHARLES STUART

The “romantic” escape is remembered in “Skye boat song” written by Sir Harold Boulton in 1884 on a scottish traditional melody which is said to have been arranged by Anne Campbell MacLeod; a decade ago Anne was on a trip to the Isle of Skye and heard some sailors singing “Cuchag nan Craobh” (in English “The Cuckoo in the Grove”). “The Cuckoo in the Grove” was printed in 1907 in Minstrelsy of the Scottish Highlands, by Alfred Moffat, with a text attributed to William Ross (1762 – 1790). The melody is therefore at least dating back to the time of the story.

LO IORRAM
The song (in “Songs of the North” by Sir Harold Boulton and Anne Campbell MacLeod, London  1884)  is a “iorram”, not really a sea shanty: his function is giving rhythm to the rowers but at the same time it was also a funeral lament. The time is 3/4 or 6/8: the first beat is very accentuated and corresponds to the phase in which the oar is lifted and brought forward, 2 and 3 are the backward stroke. Some of these tunes are still played in the Hebrides as a waltz.

The song was a success: from the very beginning rumors circulated that they passed the text as a translation of an ancient Gaelic song and soon became a classic piece of Celtic music and in particular of traditional Scottish music (revisited from beat to smooth, jazz, pop, country, rock, dance), countless instrumental versions (from one instrument – harp, bagpipe, guitar, flute – or two up to the orchestra) with classical arrangements, traditional, new age, also for military and choral bands.


CHORUS
Speed bonnie boat,
like a bird on the wing,

Onward, the sailors cry
Carry the lad that’s born to be king(1)
Over the sea to Skye (2)
I
Loud the winds howl,
loud the waves roar,
Thunder clouds rend the air;
Baffled our foe’s stand on the shore
Follow they will not dare
II
Though the waves leap,
soft shall ye sleep
Ocean’s a royal bed
Rocked (3) in the deep,
Flora will keep
Watch by your weary head

III
Many’s the lad fought on that day
Well the claymore could wield
When the night came silently, lay
Dead on Culloden’s field
IV
Burned are our homes, exile and death
Scatter the loyal men
Yet, e’er the sword cool in the sheath,
Charlie will come again (4).

NOTE
Lost_Portrait_of_Charles_Edward_Stuart1) Who was the “Young Pretender”? Probably just a dandy with the Italian accent and the passion of the brandy, but how much was the charm that exercised on the Scottish Highlands! (see more)
2) Skye isle in theInner Hebrides, but it sounds like “sky” and therefore a metaphor, Charlie is a hero in the firmament
3)  “rocked” as in many sea songs and sea shanties it stand for “cradled by the sea”
4) in 1884 Charles Stuart was dust, but romantic literature maintained live the Jacobite spirit and songs still burned in hearts

CHARLES STUART “ULTIMO ATTO”

Charles_Edward_Stuart_(1775)In 1896 Robert Louis Stevenson wrote “Over the sea to Skye” (aka Sing Me a Song of a Lad That Is Gone) a new version of Sir Harold Boulton’s Skye Boat song, because he wasn’t satisfied with what it was written by an English baronet.
Charles Edward wasn’t a Bonny Prince any more but an old, sickness man, even if in his “golden” exile between Rome and Florence. Vittorio Alfieri describes him as tyrannic and always drunk husband (but he was in love with Louise of Stolberg-Gedern -Charles Edward’s fair-haired wife). The Prince, embittered and addicted to alcohol, died in Rome on 31 January 1788 (also abandoned by his wife four years ago).

OVER THE SEA TO SKYE
Robert Louis Stevenson 1896)
I
Sing me a song of a lad that is gone,
Say, could that lad be I?
Merry of soul, he sailed on a day
Over the sea to Skye
II
Mull was astern, Rum was on port,
Eigg on the starboard bow.
Glory of youth glowed in his soul,
Where is that glory now?

III
Give me again all that was there,
Give me the sun that shone.
Give me the eyes, give me the soul,
Give me the lad that’s gone.
IV
Billow and breeze, islands and seas,
Mountains of rain and sun;
All that was good, all that was fair,
All that was me is gone.

OUTLANDER VERSION

Skye Boat song’s tune is a principal theme in Outlander tv series sung by Raya Yarbrough and arranged by Bear McCreary, from Robert Louis Stevenson’s poem,  referencing how Claire Randall travels 200 years back in time.
Outlander season I -The Skye Boat Song (Short)
Outlander Season I -The Skye Boat Song (Extended)
Outlander season II -The Skye Boat Song (French version)

Outlander season 3  -The Skye Boat Song Caribbean version

I
Sing me a song of a lass that is gone…
Say, “would that lass be I?”
Merry of soul (1), she sailed on a day
Over the sea to Skye. 
II
Billow and breeze, islands and seas,
Mountains of rain and sun…
All that was good, all that was fair,
All that was me is gone.


French Version
I
Sing me a song of a lass that is gone,
Say, could that lass be I?
Merry of soul she sailed on a day
Over the sea to Skye.
II
Billow and breeze, islands and seas,
Mountains of rain and sun,
All that was good, all that was fair,
All that was me is gone.
III
Chante-moi l’histoire d’une fille d’autrefois,
S’agirait-il de moi?
L’ame légère elle prit un jour la mer
Over the sea to Skye.
I
Sing me a song of a lass that is gone
Say, could that lass be I?
Merry of soul she sailed on a day
Over the sea to Skye
II
Mull was astern, Rùm on the port
Eigg on the starboard bow
Glory of youth glowed in her soul
Where is that glory now?
III
Give me again all that was there
Give me the sun that shone
Give me the eyes, give me the soul
Give me the lass that’s gone
IV
Billow and breeze, islands and seas
Mountains of rain and sun
All that was good, all that was fair
All that was me is gone
Notes
1) she was feeling very merry in her heart, she was happy

FONTI
https://terreceltiche.altervista.org/charlie-hes-my-darling/
http://www.electricscotland.com/history/women/wih9.htm
http://www.windsorscottish.com/pl-others-fmacdonald.php
http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=31609
http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=94755

Outlander: Tha Mo Leabaidh ‘san Fhraoch

Outlander, Dragonfly in Amber

“Tha Mo Leabaidh ‘san Fhraoch” (In the Heather’s My Bed) is a Jacobite song dating back to 1747, attributed to Dougal Roy Cameron. This is the song that Jamie and Laoghaire first danced to after meeting again at Lallybroch at the Hogmanay party (V, chapter 37) 

Clan Cameron of Lochiel, old motto was: Mo Righ ‘s Mo Dhuchaich (For King and Country)

The story linked to the song is extremely compelling: Dougal Roy Cameron (MacGillonie / MacOllonie) (or Dughall Ruadh Camaran) was a soldier in the Donald Cameron regiment of Lochiel, taken prisoner in the battle of Culloden (or in some conflict just before) and then released on July 15th 1747.
Shortly before the capture he learned of the death of his brother, executed by order of a ruthless officer named Grant of Knockando, while he was about to give up with his crew. Some Cameron, who had witnessed the execution closely, assured that the officer was wearing a blue coat and riding a white horse. Upon his release, Dougal went in search of that officer to kill him and found him near the Loch Arkaig, but he killed Munro of Culchairn wearing the same jacket. This is why our outlaw spends the sleepless nights, hidden in some dark and damp ravine in the gorges, regretting not having succeeded in trying to avenge his brother’s blood.
The personal story of the warrior intertwines the disappointment of the bitter defeat of the Jacobite cause (attributed by the changings some of the major clan leaders) and the hope of a triumphal return of Prince Charlie.

The Lochies (full version here)


I
Tha mo leabaidh ‘san fhraoch
Fo shileadh nan craobh,
‘S ged tha mi ‘sa choille
Cha do thoill mi na taoid.
II
Tha mo leab’ air an làr
‘S tha mo bhreacan gun sgàil,
‘S cha d’fhuair mi lochd cadail
O’n a spaid mi Cùl Chàirn.
III
Tha mo dhùil ann an Dia
Ged a dhìobradh Loch Iall,
Fhaicinn fhathast na chòirneal
An Inbhir Lòchaidh seo shìos.
IV
Bha thu dìleas do’n Phrionns’
Is d’a shinnsre o thùs,
‘S ged nach tug thu dha t’fhacal
Bha thu ceart air a chùl.
V
Cha b’ionnan ‘s MacLeòid
A tha ‘n-dràsd’ aig Rìgh Deòrs’,
Na fhògarrach soilleir
Fo choibhreadh ‘n dà chleòc.
VI
Cha b’ionnan ‘s an laoch
O Cheapaich nan craobh
Chaidh e sìos le chuid ghaisgeach,
‘S nach robh tais air an raon.
VII
Ach nuair a thig am Prionns’ òg
Is na Frangaich ‘ga chòir,
Théid sgapadh gun taing
Ann an campa Rìgh Deòrs’.
VIII
‘S ged tha mis’ ann am fròig
Tha am botal ‘nam dhorn,
‘S gun òl mi ‘s chan àicheadh
Deoch-slàint a’ Phrionns’ òg.
English version*
I
In the heather ‘s my bed
‘Neath the dew-laden trees,
And though I’m in the green-wood
I deserved not the ropes.
II
My bed’s on the ground
And uncovered’s my plaid (1),
Sleep has not come upon me
Since I murdered Culchairn (2).
III
My hope rests in God,
Though Lochiel (3) has gone,
I’ll yet see him a colonel
In Inverlochy (4) down here.
IV
Thou wast true to the Prince
And his race, from the first,
Though thou hadst never promised
Thou didst give him true aid.
V
Not so did MacLeod (5),
Who is now for King George,
A manifest outcast
‘Neath the shade of two cloaks (6).
VI
Not so the warrior brave
From Keppoch of the trees (7),
Who charged down with his heroes,
Unafraid on the field.
VII
But when comes the young Prince (8)
With the Frenchmen to aid,
Unthanked will be scattered
The camp of King George.
VIII
And though I’m in a den (9),
There’s a glass in my hand,
And I’ll drink, and refuse not,
A health to Prince Charles.

NOTES
* John Lorne Campbell in “Highland Songs of the ’45” (1932)
1) the highlander kilt (in Gaelic philabeg) was a long blanket (plaid)
2) Captain Murno of Culcairn
3) Donald Cameron of Lochiel (c.1700 – October 1748) or “Gentle Lochiel” for his acts of magnanimity towards prisoners was among the most influential chieftains traditionally loyal to the Stuart House.
4) Fort William was built to control the Highland clans
5) McLeod of McLeod promised his support to the Prince, his defection weighed heavily on the failure of the uprising.
6) In the Middle Ages the feudal service  was symbolically given “under his cloak”, and bride was wearing the mantle of her future husband during the celebration of the Marriage, as a sign of submission
7) Alexander McDonald of Keppoch died at the head of his clan in Culloden while the rest of the McDonalds folded
8) Bonny Charlie will never return to Scotland see
9) After Culloden many warriors took refuge in caves and dens to escape the raids of British troops: the Highlands were militarized and kept under strict English control.

see more

FONTI
https://terreceltiche.altervista.org/war-songs-anti-war-songs/you-jacobites-by-name/
https://terreceltiche.altervista.org/charlie-hes-my-darling/
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clan_Cameron
http://chrsouchon.free.fr/hamoleab.htm

Outlander: Dance of the Druids

Leggi in italiano

Dance of the Druids (aka The Summoning) is a song composed  by Bear McCreary on a Gaelic prayer transcribed by Alexander Carmichael in his “Carmina Gadelica” (1900) entitled “Duan na Muthairne” ( Rune of the Muthairn).

An ancient song still known at South Uist in 1874, the witness Duncan MacLellan had heard from an old woman that repeated long chants night after night by the fire (then came the television!) Probably the old lady preferred the prayer in the Gaelic of his fathers instead of the Our Father of the Catholic Church!
Apparently a prayer to the Creator but  if in place of Rìgh na = “King of” we put a Rìghinn na = “Queen of” we get the description of the Milky Way
Raya Yarbrough  in Outlander: Season 1, Vol. 1 (Original Television Soundtrack) – only the first stanza

 

I
Thou King of the moon (1),
Thou King of the sun,
Thou King of the planets (2),
Thou King of the stars,
Thou King of the globe,
Thou King of the sky (3),
Oh! Lovely Thy countenance,
Thou beauteous Beam (4).
II
Two loops of silk
Down by thy limbs,
Smooth-skinned (5);
Yellow jeweIs
And a handful
Out of every stock of them (6).
I
A Righ na gile (1)
A Righ na greine,
A Righ na rinne (2),
A Righ na reula,
A Righ na cruinne,
A Righ na speura (3),
Is aluinn do ghnuis,
A lub (4) eibhinn.
II
Da lub shioda
Shios rid’ leasraich
Mhinich, chraicich;
Usgannan buidhe
Agus dolach
As gach sath dhiubh

NOTES
Carmichael allowed himself rather a lot of freedom in his translations, so Tom Thomson (gaelic speaking) argues
1) “na gile” (of the whiteness)
2) I can’t see how “na rinne” (singular) can mean “of the planets” (plural) – it’s clearly singular and means either “of the world” or perhaps “of creation” or even “of the universe”
3) “na speura” (of heaven)
4) A lùb=”young man”
5) a silky skin, soft and luminous
6) Celts liked the golden jewellery

OUTLANDER SAGA

The novel is a romantic love story between Claire Randall and James Fraser aka James Alexander Malcolm MacKenzie Fraser Lord of Broch Tuarach and their vicissitudes along Europe and the Americas. A portrait of Scotland in the mid-700 century torn by the Jacobite struggles and clan conflicts, carefully recreated by Diana Gabaldon, through the traditions and life of the Scottish people, in a rich and evocative style.

CRAIGH NA DUN

A story beginning  “over the top”, with a journey through time of the protagonist who, during her honeymoon in Inverness, finds herself projected into the past by crossing throug Craigh na Dun: from 1945 in 1743.
The theme of the Dance of the Druids renamed “Stones Theme” is often recalled in the Outlander television series linked to the mystery of the stone circle and to the rituals in the ancient religion.

second part

FONTI
http://ontanomagico.altervista.org/megalitismo.html
http://ontanomagico.altervista.org/religione-celti.html?cb=1521975648601

http://www.carmichaelwatson.lib.ed.ac.uk/cwatson/en/catalogueentry/2126
http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/corpus/Carmina/G9.html
http://digital.nls.uk/early-gaelic-book-collections/archive/75760440?mode=transcription