Jack O’Lantern in a dress

Leggi in italiano

The theme of the Devil who tries to take a sinner to hell is a classic of the Celtic tales, made exemplary in the story of Jack O’Lantern: on the night of Halloween the Devil walks the earth to reclaim the souls of men, but Stingy Jack was able to decive him with some tricks; and for two years in a row! At last the Devil, scornfully, gives up Jack’s soul for another ten years. When Jack dies for his too many vices both the doors of Paradise and those of hell are barred for him; forced to wander in the dark, he receives as a gift from the Devil a ember to illuminate his path; since then Jack continues to roam the Limbo in search of a dwelling he will never find, with his pumpkin-shaped lantern (which originally, before the story landed in America, was a turnip (see HOP TU NAA Isle of Manx)

Devil and the Farmer’s wife

In the ballad “Devil and the Farmer’s wife” (also known as the Little Devils-Jean Ritchie) dating back to 1600, the woman deserves the hell for her spiteful and disrespectful behavior; but the devil himself cannot tame her, indeed he risks losing his tranquility. The similarity between the two stories occurs in one of the nineteenth-century versions (Macmath Manuscript 1862 cf) in which the devil says referring to the woman: “O what to do with her I cane weel tell; she’s no fit for heaven, and she’ll no bide in hell! ” just like Jack who found both the Gate of Heaven and Hell to be closed.
The ballad is probably even older, and some scholars link it to Chaucer’s Tales of Canterbury (Waltz and Engle).

LITTLE DEVILS

The ballad has spread widely in England, Ireland, Scotland and America with fairly similar text versions, albeit with melodies declined in a different way.
THE DEVIL AND THE PLOWMAN (english version)
Lilli burlero
THE FARMER’S CURSED WIFE (american version)
KILLYBURN BRAE (Irish version)
KELLYBURN BRAES (Scottish version)

THE DEVIL AND THE PLOWMAN

The ballad appears in print in London in 1630 with the title “The Devill and the Scold” to the tune “The Seminary Priest” cf
Of this ballad there are two extant editions, the earlier being in the Roxburghe Collection. The second is in the Rawlinson Collection, No. 169, published by Coles, Vere, and other stationers– a trade edition, of the reign of Charles II. Mr. Payne Collier includes “The Devil and the Scold” in his volume of Eoxburghe Ballads, and says: “This is certainly an early ballad: the allusion, in the second room, to Tom Thumb and Robin Goodfellow (whose ‘Mad Pranks’ had been published before 1588) is highly curious, and one proof of its antiquity ..
The ballad is often printed in broadside throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and collected in two textual variants in “The English And Scottish Popular Ballads” (1882-1898) by Francis James Child  at number 278 with the title “The Farmer’s Curst Wife “.

The song was collected in 1903 by Henry Burstow, Sussex and published in The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs by Ralph Vaughan Williams and A.L. Lloyd (1959). Very similar to the text version reported by James Henry Dixon in “Ancient Poems, Ballads and Song” (1846) (Child # 278 version A cf).
Thus writes A.L. Lloyd in 1960 in the liner notes of “A Selection from the Penguin Book of English Folk Songs”, echoing the notes reported by Child himself: The tale of the shrewish wife who terrifies even the demons is ancient and widespread. The Hindus have it in a sixth century fable collection, the Panchatantra. It seems to have traveled westward by Persia, and to have spread to almost every European country. In the early versions, the farmer makes a pact with his wife in return for a pair of plow oxen. Vaughan Williams got the present ballad from the Horsham shoemaker and bell-ringer, Henry Burstow. Mr Burstow whistled the refrains that in our performance are played by the concertina. Whistling was a familiar way of calling up the Devil (hence the sailors who whistling may raise a storm). (from here)

The shrewish wife is taken back to her husband who believed he had succeeded in making fun of the devil! Given the subject is among the most popular ballads in medieval festivals and pirate gatherings !!

from Kellyburn Braes, Sorche Nic Leodhas, illustrated by Evaline Ness, 1968

A.L. Lloyd

Kim Lowings & The Greenwood from This Life, 2012


There was an old farmer in Sussex did dwell/ And he’d a bad wife as many knew well(1)
To me fal-de-ral little law-day.(2)
The Devil he came to the old man at plough,
Saying. ‘One of your family I must have now.
‘Now it isn’t for you nor yet for your son,
But that scolding old wife as you’ve got at home.’
Oh take her, oh take her with all of my heart,/ And I wish she and you may never more part.’
So the devil he took the old wife on his back(3),
And lugged her along like a pedlar’s pack./
He trudged along till he reached his front gate,
Says: ‘Here, take in an old   Sussex chap’s mate.
There was thirteen imps(4) all dancing in chains;
She up with her pattens and beat out their brains.
Two more little devils jumped over the wall,
Saying: ‘Turn her out, father, she’ll murder us all.’
So he bundled her up on his back again,/ And to her old husband he took her again.
I’ve been a tormentor the whole of my life,
But I was never tormented till I met your wife.’
And now to conclude and make an end,/ You see that the women is worse than the men,
If they got sent to Hell, they get kicked back again (5)

NOTE
1) the sentence wants to underline the less than submissive character of the woman!
2) Whistling was a way to summon the devil!
3) the image of women straddling the devil is supported by a vast iconography dating back to the Middle Ages
4) the image of the devils literally massacred by the woman is very funny, unfortunately the domestic reality was very different and in general it was women who suffered mistreatment and violence.
5)  Kim edited the final verse to show the strength of women:
And now to conclude and make an end
you see that us women are strong
even when we get sent to hell,
we come  straight back again

THE FARMER’S CURSED WIFE: american version

Here too we find an almost identical textual version declined however with bluegrass melodies. The ending is very hilarious and often without the moral: the old farmer, seeing his wife return, rejected by the devil himself, decides to run and never go home again!

Heather Dale from Perpetual Gift 2012.

Jean Ritchie, British Traditional Ballads in the Southern Mountains, Volume 2


Well there was an old man living up on the hill/ If he ain’t moved on, he’s a livin’ there still
CHORUS Hi diddle ai diddle hi fi, diddle ai diddle ai day
Now the Devil he came to him one day
said “One of your kin I’m gonna take away“/ He said “Oh please don’t take my only son/ There’s work on the farm that’s gotta be done.
Oh but you can have my nagging wife
I swear by God, she’s the curse of my life”
So they marched on down to the gates of hell/ He Said “Kick on the fire boys, we’ll roast her well”
Out came a little devil with a spit and chain
that she upped with her foot and knocked out his brain
Out came a dozen demons then a dozen more
But when she was done they was flat on the floor

So all those little demons went scrambling up the wall
saying “tale her back, daddy, she’ll murder us all
So the Farmer woke up and he looked out the crack/ and he saw that devil bringing her back!
He said:”Here’s your wife both sound and well/ if I kept her any longer she’d’ve tore up the hell
The old man jumped and he bit his tongue
then he ran for the hills in a flat out run
He was heard to yell, as he ran o’er the hill/ “if the devil won’t have her, ‘be damned if I will

LINK
https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=17306

Peggy O

Three titles for a ballad: Bonny Lass of Fyvie in Scotland, Pretty Peggy of Derby in England and Pretty Peggy-o in America. Francis James Child considers all the “Peggy ballads” (and its variants “Fen (n) ario”) as part of the Trooper and Maid theme
Tre titoli per una ballata: Bonny Lass of Fyvie in Scozia, Pretty Peggy of Derby in Inghilterra e Pretty Peggy-o in America.  Francis James Child ritiene tutte le “ballate di Peggy” (e le sue varianti “Fen(n)ario”) come facenti parte del ramo di Trooper and Maid

Scottish version (La versione scozzese)

American Versions (Le versioni americane)

Widespread in the 60s and 70s of the American folk revival (from Joan Baez to Bob Dylan), the ballad is different, melodically, from the Scottish relative. Joan Baez puts her the title of Fennario: the passage from Fyvie O to Fyvio is evident, which recalls the word fen “swamp, swamp, quagmire”, of Scandinavian origin.
Diffusa negli anni 60-70 del folk revival americano (da Joan Baez a Bob Dylan), la ballata è ben lontana melodicamente dalla parente scozzese. Joan Baez le mette il titolo di Fennario: è evidente il passaggio da Fyvie O a Fyvio che richiama la parola fen “palude, acquitrino, pantano”, di origine scandinava.

Joan Baez, 1962
It is a regimental soldier who tells the story, a bit unclear because it is missing a couple of stanzas, those in which the girl rejects the captain who asks her to marry him (he is not rich enough). The young captain dies (in battle or from displeasure) and the soldier would like to take revenge by putting the country on fire.
E’ il soldato del reggimento a raccontare la storia, peraltro poco chiara perchè mancante di un paio di strofe, quelle in cui  la fanciulla respinge il capitano che le chiede di sposarlo (non è abbastanza ricco). Il giovane capitano muore (in battaglia o per il dispiacere) e il soldato vorrebbe vendicarsi mettendo a ferro e fuoco il paese.


I
As we marched down to Fennario
As we marched down to Fennario,
Our captain fell in love
with a lady like a dove.
They call her by name pretty Peggy-o
II
What will your mother think
pretty Peggy-o? (x2)
What will your mother think
when she hears the guineas clink,
The soldiers all marchin’ before you-o?
III
In a carriage you will ride,
pretty Peggy-o. (x2)
In a carriage you will ride
with your true love by your side,
As fair as any maiden in the are-o.
IV
Come skippin’ down the stair,
pretty Peggy-o. (x2)
Come skippin’ down the stair
combin’ back your yellow hair,
And bid farewell to sweet William-o.
V
Sweet William is dead,
pretty Peggy-o. (x2)
Sweet William is dead,
and he died for a maid,
The fairest maid in the are-o.
VI
If ever I return,
pretty Peggy-o (x2)
If ever I return
all your cities I will burn,
Destroying all the ladies in the are-o.
traduzione italiano di Cattia Salto
I
Mentre marciavamo verso Fennario,
mentre marciavamo verso Fennario,
il capitano si innamorò
di una signora, dolce come una colomba
e tutti la chiamavano la bella Peggy-o.
II
Che penserà vostra madre,
bella Peggy-o?
che penserà vostra madre
quando sentirà tintinnare le mie ghinee
e (vedrà) tutti i soldati marciare davanti a te?
III
Viaggerai in carrozza
bella Peggy-o
Viaggerai in carrozza
con il tuo vero amore accanto
più  bella di tutte le altre  fanciulle nella contea.
IV
Corri giù per le scale,
bella Peggy-o
Corri giù per le scale
pettina all’indietro i tuoi capelli biondi,
dai un ultimo saluto al dolce William-o.
V
Il dolce William è morto,
bella Peggy-o
il dolce William è morto
ed è morto per una fanciulla,
la più bella fanciulla nella contea.
VI
Se mai ritornerò
della Peggy-o
se mai ritornerò
tutte le vostre città brucerò,
e ucciderò tutte le signore della contea.

Grateful Dead live 1977


I
As we rode out to Fennario (x2)
Our captain fell in love
with a lady like a dove
And called her by a name,
pretty Peggy-O.
II
Will you marry me
pretty Peggy-O, (x2)
If you will marry me,
I’ll set your cities free
And free all the ladies in the area-O.
III
I would marry you sweet William-O, (x2)
I would marry you
but your guineas are too few
And I fear my mama would be angry-O.
IV
What would your mama think
pretty Peggy-O, (x2)
What would your mama think
if she heard my guineas clink
Saw me marching at the head of my soldiers.
V
If ever I return
pretty Peggy-O,(x2)
If ever I return
your cities I will burn
Destroy all the ladies in the area-O.
VI
Come steppin’ down the stairs
pretty Peggy-O, (x2)
Come steppin’ down the stairs c
ombin’ back your yellow hair
Bid a last farewell
to your William-O.
VI
Sweet William he is dead
pretty Peggy-O, (x2)
Sweet William he is dead
and he died for a maid
And he’s buried in the Louisiana country-O.
traduzione italiano di Michele Murino
I
Mentre marciavamo verso Fennario,
il capitano si innamorò di una signora
che sembrava una colomba
e tutti la chiamavano
graziosa Peggy-o.
II
Volete sposarmi,
Graziosa Peggy-o?
Volete sposarmi?
Libererò le vostre città
e tutte le donne della contea-o
III
Vi sposerei, dolce William-o
Vi sposerei
Ma le vostre ghinee sono poche
Temo che mia mamma si arrabbierebbe
IV
Che penserebbe vostra madre,
Graziosa Peggy-o?
Che penserebbe vostra madre
se potesse sentire tintinnare le mie ghineee, vedermi marciare alla testa dei miei soldati?
V
Se mai ritornerò,
Graziosa Peggy-o
Se mai ritornerò
brucerò le vostre città
ed ucciderò tutte le donne della contea
VI
Corri giù per le scale,
Graziosa Peggy-o
Corri giù per le scale
pettina all’indietro i tuoi capelli biondi
dai un ultimo saluto
al dolce William-o
VI
Dolce William è morto,
Graziosa Peggy-o
dolce William è morto
ed è morto per una fanciulla
lo hanno seppellito nella contea della Louisiana

Caprice in Kywitt! Kywitt! 2008


I
As we marched down to faneri-o
As we marched down to faneri-o
Our captain fell n love
with a lady like a dove
And they called her name,
pretty peggy-o
II
Come a runnin’ down the stairs, p
retty peggy-o
Come a runnin’ down the stairs,
pretty peggy-o
Come a runnin’ down the stairs,
combin’ back your yellow hair
You’re the prettiest little girl i’ve ever seen-o
III
What will your mother say,
pretry peggy-o?
What will your mother say,
pretty peggy-o?
What will your mother say,
when she finds you’ve gone away
To places far and strange to faneri-o?
IV
If ever i return,
pretty peggy-o
If ever i return,
pretty peggy-o
If ever i return,
all your cities i will burn
Destroying all the ladies in the ar-e-o
Destroying all the ladies in the ar-e-o
traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Mentre marciavamo verso Fennario,
mentre marciavamo verso Fennario,
il capitano si innamorò
di una signora, dolce come una colomba
e tutti la chiamavano
la bella Peggy-o.
II
Corri giù per le scale,
bella Peggy-o
Corri giù per le scale
bella Peggy-o
Corri giù per le scale
pettina all’indietro i tuoi capelli biondi,
sei la più bella fanciulla che io abbia mai visto
III
Che penserà vostra madre,
bella Peggy-o?
che penserà vostra madre
bella Peggy-o
che penserà vostra madre
quando saprà che sei partita
per le lontane lande sperdute di Fennario?
IV
Se mai ritornerò,
bella Peggy-o
Se mai ritornerò
bella Peggy-o
Se mai ritornerò,
brucerò le vostre città
ed ucciderò tutte le donne della contea
ed ucciderò tutte le donne della contea

LINK
http://www.lizlyle.lofgrens.org/RmOlSngs/RTOS-PrettyPeggy.html https://thesession.org/tunes/10943 http://www.maggiesfarm.it/ttt954.htm
http://www.maggiesfarm.eu/testiP/prettypeggy-o.htm

Our Goodman: Three (Four) Drunken Nights, Cabbage head

Vladan Nikolic

Our Goodman, The Goodman, The Gudeman, The Traveler

American version
Four (Three) Nights Drunk, Four (Five) Drunken Nights,
Old Cuckold, Cabbage Head 
Drunkard’s Special

Seven Drunken nights (irish version)
Peigín agus Peadar (irish gaelic version)

Le repliche di Marion (italian version)

The ballad “Our Goodman” is usually performed in a humorous way, presenting a burlesque conversation between husband and wife, with the female voice in falsetto (or the female voice singing how a man who imitates a woman would sing ). In the America of the 20s the ballad, which followed the emigrants of the British Isles, became popular among African-American musicians, especially in the New Orleans scene, among the titles “Cabbage Head Blues”, “Drunkard’s Special” “Three Nights Drunk “. There is no lack of jazz, R&B, rockabilly, country versions, but here I want to take a brief look at the folk versions in old style, bluegrass
“Our Goodman” di solito viene eseguito in modo umoristico, presentando un siparietto di botta e risposta tra marito-moglie, con la voce femminile in falsetto (o la voce femminile che canta come canterebbe un uomo che imita la voce di una donna). Nell’America degli anni 20 la ballata, arrivata al seguito degli emigranti delle Isole Britanniche, è diventata popolare tra i musicisti afro-americani in particolare della scena di New Orleans, tra i titoli “Cabbage Head Blues”, “Drunkard’s Special” “Three Nights Drunk”. Non mancano versioni jazz, R&B, rockabilly, country, ma in questa sede voglio fare una breve disamina sulle versioni folk in old style, bluegrass

Peter Seeger – My Good Man

The Blue Ridge Buddies, Estil Ball, Orna Ball & Blair Reedy – Three Nights Drunk in Old Time Music from Mike Seeger’s Collection, 1952-1967

Kristin Hersh -Three Nights Drunk

Hamper Mcbee “Cabbage head”, Three nights drunk

An exemplary version is that of Emma Dusenbury of Mena, Arkansas who is very close to the English version of 1760 (broadside): the action takes place in a single night and the wife’s visitors are three, all in bed. The song is sung as a cumulative song to witness a plausible oral tradition as a cumulative song
Una versione esemplare è quella di Emma Dusenbury di Mena, nell’Arkansas che è molto vicina alla versione inglese del 1760: l’azione si svolge in un unica notte e i visitatori della moglie sono tre, tutti nel letto. La canzone è cantata come canzone cumulativa a testimoniare una plausibile tradizione orale come canzone cumulativa
lyrics

LINK
https://blogs.loc.gov/folklife/2018/09/mustache-on-a-cabbage-head-three-centuries-experience-with-our-goodman/
http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/42-our-goodman-.aspx
http://bluegrassmessengers.com/us–canada-versions-274-our-goodman.aspx
https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Four_Nights_Drunk_(American_version)
http://www.steveterrellmusic.com/2014/08/mustache-on-cabbage-music-history-lesson.html
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=4547
http://eachstorytold.com/2018/09/14/four-nights-drunk-lyrics-sung-by-frank-proffitt-jr-circa-1980-nc-visiting-artist-performance-song-brought-over-from-british-isles/
https://www.loc.gov/item/afc9999005.6565/

http://bluegrassmessengers.com/the-jealous-hearted-husband–dusenberry-ar-1959.aspx

Man of Constant Sorrow 

“Man of Constant Sorrow” is an American folk song first published in 1913 by Dick Burnett (1883 – 1977), as “Farewell Song”. About ten years later it was recorded by Emry Arthur with the current title.
The origin of the song is not clear, Burnett in an interview released a few years before his death did not remember if he had taken a traditional song or if it was a composition of his own, on the other hand Arthur claimed the authorship of the text, but more poblably he learned it from Burnett, -they came from the Elk Spring Valley , Kentucky and had both suffered a mutilation (the first was blind, the second with one hand disable,) which led them to live from their musical talent.
Some scholars believe this song as result of a semi-biographical re-elaboration of an old hymn “I Am A Poor Pilgrim Of Sorrow“, but it could date back to the first American pioneers settled in the Appalachian Mountains.
“Man of Constant Sorrow” è un canto tradizionale americano pubblicato per la prima volta nel 1913 da Dick Burnett (1883 – 1977), con il titolo di Farewell Song. Una decina d’anni più tardi venne registrato da Emry Arthur con l’attuale titolo.
Non è ben chiara l’origine del brano, Burnett in un’intervista rilasciata qualche anno prima della sua morte, non si ricordava se avesse ripreso un brano tradizionale o se fosse una sua composizione, d’altra parte Arthur rivendicò la paternità del testo, anche se più probabilmente l’imparò da Burnett, i due provenivano dalla Elk Spring Valley Kentucky e avevano subito entrambi delle mutilazioni (il primo era cieco, il secondo inabile ad una mano) che li spinse a fare del loro talento musicale un mestiere.
Alcuni studiosi sono inclini a ritenere che il brano sia scaturito dalla rielaborazione in chiave semi-biografica di un vecchio inno “I Am A Poor Pilgrim Of Sorrow“, ma potrebbe risalire ai primi pionieri americani insediati sui Monti Appalachi

Emry Arthur moved to Indianapolis where he joined the record circuit and in 1928 he recorded his old-time version of “Man of Constant Sorrow”
Emry Arthur
si trasferì a Indianapolis dove s’inserì nel circuito discografico e nel 1928 incise la sua versione old-time di “Man of Constant Sorrow”
(I, II, III, IV, V
Richard Burnett, VI Richard Burnett)

The Stanley Brothers  in the 1950s they gave it a new popularity and their bluegrass version, with a faster tempo, became the standard one
negli anni 1950 le diedero una nuova popolarità e loro versione bluegrass, con un tempo più veloce, è diventata quella standard
(I, II, III, IV, V) 

Bob Dylan – blues version recorded in 1961
released several arrangements of this song, alternating the words to turn the story into a sentimental adventure of a hobo
ha rilasciato diversi arrangiamenti di questa canzone e alternando quel tanto che basta le parole, trasforma la storia nell’avventura sentimentale di un hobo
nelle sue prime versioni (1961) prevale la vena blues

(I, IV-V Bob Dylan, II-III Bob Dylan, VI Bob Dylan )

Some female versions were also released: “Girl of Constant Sorrow” from Joan Baez and “Maid of Constant Sorrow” from Judy Collins (1961)
Così come furono rilasciate le versioni al femminile di Joan Baez con il titolo di  “Girl of Constant Sorrow” e di Judy Collins con il titolo di  “Maid of Constant Sorrow”

Jerry Garcia, David Grisman & Tony Rice in the Pizza Tapes 2000 (session live 1993)

Public interest in the song was renewed after the release of the 2000 film O Brother, Where Art Thou? (by the Coen brothers) that seems to condense the film’s plot; to sing it a fictitious bluegrass band with the unlikely name of Soggy Bottom Boys
Con il film “Fratello, dove sei?” dei fratelli Coen, del 2000, il brano che sembra condensare in una ballata la trama del film, ha conosciuto un rinnovato interesse, a cantarlo una fittizia bluegrass band dall’improbabile nome di Soggy Bottom Boys (letteralmente “i Culi a mollo” o qualcosa del genere)
Dan Tyminski live

Soggy Bottom Boys in “O Brother, where art you?” 2000
The soundtrack led a bluegrass revival in America and reached #1 on the Albums chart in 2002, the year it won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year.
Dan Tyminski voice and guitar, Jerry Douglas dobro, Ron Block banjo, Chris Sharp on the second guitar, Stuart Duncan violin, Mike Compton mandolin and Barry Bales bass.
La colonna sonora ha portato ad un rinnovato interesse verso il bluegrass in America e ha raggiunto il primo posto nella classifica degli album nel 2002 (anno in cui ha vinto il Grammy Award come Disco dell’Anno) 
Dan Tyminski voce e chitarra, Jerry Douglas dobro, Ron Block banjo, Chris Sharp alla seconda chitarra, Stuart Duncan violino, Mike Compton mandolino e Barry Bales basso.

The film version with a bewitching George Clooney: trying to scrape together some money along the escape route, Soggy Bottom Boys record the song in a small radio station and taking advantage of the producer’s blindness they pretend to be a black band
La versione del film con un ammaliante George Clooney : i tre evasi nel tentativo di raggranellare qualche soldo lungo la via di fuga, registrano il brano in una piccola stazione radiofonica e approfittando della cecità del produttore si spacciano per una band di negri

Dan Tyminski  and backing vocals from Harley Allen and Pat Enright

Cut from the movie: live version
la versione con l’esibizione live

Home Free in Timeless 2017 country version in Pentatonix style


I
I am a man of constant sorrow,
I’ve seen trouble on my day,
I bid farewell to old Kentucky, (1)
The place where I was borned and raised,
(The place where he was borned and raised.)
II
For six long years I’ve been in trouble (2),
No pleasure here on Earth I’ve found,
For in this world I’m bound to ramble,
I have no friends (3) to help me now,
(He has no friends to help him now.)
III
It’s fare thee well, my only lover,
I never expect to see you again,
For I’m bound to ride that Northern railroad (4),
Perhaps I’ll die upon this train,
(Perhaps he’ll die upon this train.)
II-III Bob Dylan version
Through this open world I’m a-bound to ramble
Through ice and snow, sleet and rain
I’m a-bound to ride that mornin’ railroad
Perhaps I’ll die upon that train
IV
You can bury me in some deep valley (5),
For many years where I may lay,
And you may learn to love another, 
While I am sleeping in my grave, (6)
(While he is sleeping in his grave.)
V
Maybe your friends think I’m just a stranger,
My face you’ll never see no more,
But there is one promise that is given,
I’ll meet you on God’s Golden Shore,
(He’ll meet you on God’s Golden Shore)
IV-V Bob Dylan version
Your mother says that I’m a stranger
A face you’ll never see no more
But here’s one promise to ya
I’ll see you on God’s golden shore
VI Bob Dylan
I’m a-goin’ back to Colorado
The place that I’ve started from
If I’d knowed how bad you’d treat me
honey, I never would have come
V Richard Burnett
Oh, fare you well to my native country,
The place I have loved so well,
For I have seen all kinds of trouble,
In this vain world no tongue can tell.
VI Richard Burnett
Dear friends, although I may be a stranger,
My face you may never see no more;
But there’s a promise that is given,
(Where) we can meet on that beautiful shore.
Traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
I
Sono un uomo con una eterna tribolazione
ho visto solo guai nella mia vita,
dirò addio al vecchio Kentucky 
il posto dove sono nato e cresciuto
(l posto dove è nato e cresciuto)
II
Ho vissuto sei lungi anni di guai,
qui sulla Terra non ho trovato delizie
perchè in questo mondo sono un vagabondo,
senza amici che mi aiutino
(non ha amici che lo aiutino)
III
Addio, mio unico amore,
non mi aspetto di rivederti ancora
perchè prenderò il treno della Northern
e forse morirò su quel treno
(e forse morirà su quel treno)
II-III Bob Dylan
Sono un vagabondo di questo vasto mondo
tra ghiaccio, neve, grandine e pioggia,
prenderò quel treno del mattino
e forse morirò su quel treno
IV
Mi seppellirai in una forra
dove starò per molti anni
e tu imparerai ad amare un altro
mentre dormirò nella mia tomba
(mentre dormirà nella sua tomba)
V
Forse i tuoi amici credono che io sia solo un forestiero, e la mia faccia non la vedrai mai più
ma una cosa te la posso promettere
ti rivedrò sulla sponde dorate del Paradiso
ti rivedrà sulla sponde dorate del Paradiso
IV-V Bob Dylan
Tua madre dice che sono un forestiero
una faccia che non vedrai mai più
ma eccoti una promessa
ti rivedrò sulla sponde dorate del Paradiso
VI Bob Dylan
Me ne ritorno in Colorado
il posto da cui sono partito
se avesi saputo quanto male mi avresti trattato
Ragazza, non ci sarei mai venuto
V Richard Burnett
Addio terra natia
il posto che ho amato tanto
perchè ho visto ogni genere di guai/in questo vano mondo da non riuscire a raccontare
VI Richard Burnett
Cari amici anche se sono un forestiero
e non rivedrete più la mia faccia,
vi faccio una promessa
(dove) c’incontreremo su quella bella riva.

NOTE
1) Bob Dylan sings “Colorado”
2) Dick Burnett writes “I’ve been blind, friends” 
3) Dick Burnett writes “parents” he was orphaned as a boy and was raised by his grandparents [ Dick Burnett  scrive”genitori”: Burnett rimase orfano fin da ragazzo e fu allevato dai nonni]
4) Burnett after becoming blind due to an assault in order to support his family, he started traveling by train, performing as a street musician
Burnett dopo essere diventato cieco a causa di un’aggressione per poter mantenere la famiglia si mise a viaggiare a piedi o con il treno esibendosi come musicista di strada
5) or Sund(a)y valley
6) Dick Burnett writes:
“Oh, when you’re dreaming while you’re slumbering
While I am sleeping in the clay.”
[dove sognerai mentre riposi
mentre io dormirò sotto terra]

LINK
https://terreceltiche.altervista.org/monti-appalachi/
https://musiccourtblog.com/2010/06/18/folk-telephone-a-man-of-constant-sorrow/
https://americansongwriter.com/2011/06/behind-the-song-man-of-constant-sorrow/
https://www.songfacts.com/facts/the-stanley-brothers/man-of-constant-sorrow
http://www.protestsonglyrics.net/Anti_Poverty_Songs/Man-of-Constant-Sorrow.phtml
http://www.bobdylancommentaries.com/bob-dylan/man-of-constant-sorrow/
http://www.maggiesfarm.it/ttt935.htm
https://oldtimeparty.wordpress.com/tag/dick-burnett/
http://www.bobdylanroots.com/farewell.html
https://secondhandsongs.com/work/68271
https://www.fabiosroom.eu/it/canzoni/man-of-constant-sorrow/
https://lapoesiaelospirito.wordpress.com/2009/09/13/i-am-a-man-of-constant-sorrow/

Roll the Cotton Down – Moses! Sea shanty

This sea shanty comes in two versions, one as halyard shanty and the other as capstan shanty  (with the addition of a large choir)
Stan Hugill reports six versions classified in the Halyards, in which the verses of the black stevedores mixed with typical themes of the sea shanties: Black Ball line, Paddy on the Railway, Long Time Ago with the ubiquitous and infamous Cape Horn.
Questa shanty si presenta in due versioni una per gli alaggi e l’altra per il sollevamento dell’ancora (con l’aggiunta di un
grande coro)
Stan Hugill
riporta sei versioni classificate nelle Halyards, in cui si accostano i versi degli scaricatori neri di cotone (Black stevedores ) con temi tipici delle sea shanty: Black Ball line, Paddy on the Railway, Long Time Ago con l’onnipresente e famigerato Cape Horn.

Captain Leighton Robinson, 1939


Oh, away down South where I was born,
Oh, roll the cotton down,
Away down South where I was born,
Oh, roll the cotton down.

A dollar a day is the white man’s pay,
I thought I heard our old man say,
We’re homeward bound to Mobile Bay (1).
Oh, hoist away that yard and sing.
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
Oh, via dal Sud dove sono nato
Oh scarica il cotone
Oh, via dal Sud dove sono nato
Oh scarica il cotone

Un dollaro al giorno è la paga di un bianco
credo di aver sentito il capitano dire
Siamo in partenza per Mobile Bay
Oh issa quel pennone e canta

NOTE
1) Mobile Bay was an important southern port famous for exporting cotton bales
Mobile Bay era un importante porto del Sud famoso per l’esportazione delle balle di cotone

BLACKBALL LINE version

Paul Clayton & The Foc’sle Singers in  Foc’sle Songs and Shanties (Folkways, 1959)


Oh, away down South where I was born,
Roll the cotton down,
I used to work from night till morn(ing)
Roll the cotton down.

I thought I’d go and signed the Line
and for the sailors the sunshine shine.
A dime a day is a Black man’s pay
a white man’s pay is a dollar a day.
I served my time in the Black Ball Line
it was there I wasted all my prime.
Oh the Black Ball Line is for me the line
that’s when you fly the number nine. (???)
???  I went one day
and for Liverpool town we sail away.
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
Oh, via dal Sud dove sono nato
Oh scarica il cotone
dove ero solito lavorare dalla notte fino al mattino/Oh scarica il cotone

Pensai di andare ad arruolarmi sulla Line
dove per i marinai splendeva il sole
Una monetina al giorno è la paga di un nero
la paga di un bianco è un dollaro al giorno
ho lavorato sulla Black Ball Line
era là che sprecai la mia gioventù.
Oh la Black Ball line è la compagnia per me
??
?? andai un giorno
e per la città di Liverpool salpiamo

NOTE
ancora delle difficoltà di comprensione linguistica nella trascrizione

Roll the cotton, Moses

On his YouTube channel, Hulton Clint began a great project, to singall the chanteys (“over 400 shanties,” ) from Stan Hugill’s book, so Hulton Clint writes: “This chantey has both a halyard and a capstan form, the later being distinguished by its grand chorus of “Roll the cotton, Moses.”… Hugill’s versions “A” and “B” have the same melody and chorus, but he seems to have divided them as such just due to the rough coherence of lyrical theme. The first “speaks to Negro nostalgia”; most of its verses are far too quaint to provide much interest nowadays. The chantey does probably derive, however, from a minstrel song that took that tone. The second version has to do with the work of screwing cotton. I selected verses from each and combined them (as would be done), rather than setting out two artificially distinct variants.”
Sul suo canale You Tube Hulton Clint ha iniziato un grande progetto, cantare tutte le canzoni (oltre 400 titoli) dal libro di Stan Hugill, così scrive “Una canzone marinaresca con la forma sia di una halyard che di una capstan shanty, la seconda essendo distinta dal grande coro di “Roll the cotton, Moses”…  Le versioni di Hugill “A” e “B” hanno la stessa melodia e ritornello, e sembrerebbe siano state divise solo per una più stretta coerenza al tema lirico. Il primo “parla della nostalgia negra”; la maggior parte dei suoi versi è troppo bizzarra per offrire molto interesse al giorno d’oggi. Il chantey probabilmente deriva, tuttavia, da una canzone menestrello che ha preso quel tono. La seconda versione ha a che fare con il lavoro dello stivaggio del cotone. Ho selezionato i versi da ciascuno e li ho combinati (come si sarebbe fatto), piuttosto che impostare due varianti artificialmente distinte.

and finally the “Sailor” version for BalconyTV Poznan (Poland)
e per finire la versione dei “Sailor” per BalconyTV Poznan (Polonia)

LINK
https://www.loc.gov/item/2017701738/
http://shantiesfromthesevenseas.blogspot.com/2012/02/93-101-roll-cotton-down-series.html
http://www.thepirateking.com/music/rollthecottondown.htm
https://www.jsward.com/shanty/roll_the_cotton_down/index.html
https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=72644

https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=114864
http://www.janetelizabeth.org.uk/shanties/RolltheCotton.pdf
https://www.wrenmusic.co.uk/gallery/roll%20cotton%20down%20lyrics.pdf

He Back, She Back (Old Moke Picking on the Banjo)

Hulton Clint writes: “The lyrics are cobbled together from railroad work songs, minstrel jingles, mis-hearings of “Shule Aroon” (Cecil Sharp thought it was a variant of that song), and rough ‘n’ ready sailors phrases.” (see his You Tube channel)
Hulton Clint scrive: “Il testo è un rappezzamento di canti dei lavoratori nella ferrovia, canti d’avanspettacolo [minstrel songs], un fraintendimento di “Shule Aroon” (Cecil Sharp lo reputava una variante di quella canzone) e frasi fatte marinaresche” (vedi il suo Canale You Tube)

Cliff Haslam in Leaning the Wind 2012


I
He-bang, she-bang (1), daddy shot a bear, 
Shot him in the stern, me boys
and never turned a hair,
We’re from the railroad (2), too-ra-loo,
Oh the old moke (3) pickin’ on the banjo (4).
[CHORUS]
Hooraw! What the hell’s a row?
We’re all from the railroad, too-ra-loo,
We’re all from the railroad, too-ra-loo,
Oh the old moke pickin’ on the banjo.

II
Pat, get back, take in yer slack
Heave away, me boys;
Heave away, me bully boys,
why don’t ye make some noise?
We’re from the railroad, too-ra-loo…
III
Roll her boys, bowl her boys,
give her flamin’ gip (5)
Drag the anchor off the mud
an’ let the bastard rip (6)
We’re from the railroad, too-ra-loo….
IV
Rock-a-block, chock-a-block (7),
heave the caps’n round,
Fish the flamin’ anchor up,
for we are outward bound.
We’re from the railroad, too-ra-loo….
V
Out chocks, two blocks,
heave away or bust,
Bend yer backs, me bully boys,
kick up some flamin’ dust.
We’re from the railroad, too-ra-loo….
VI
Whisky-O, johnny-O,
the mudhook is in sight,
‘Tis a hell-of-a-way to the gals that wait,
an’ the ol’ Nantucket Light;
We’re from the railroad, too-ra-loo….
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
I
Lui spara, lei spara, papà sparò a un orso
gli sparò nel posteriore [a poppa]
e non gli aveva torto un capello
Siamo della ferrovia too-ra-loo
Oh il vecchio Moke che suona il banjo!
CORO
Hoo-raw! Qual’è il problema ora?
Siamo tutti della ferrovia too-ra-loo,
siamo tutti della ferrovia too-ra-loo,
Oh il vecchio Moke che suona il banjo
II
Pat, torna indietro, prendi il tuo posto
issiamo, ragazzi
issiamo, miei bravi
perché non vi date da fare?
Siamo della ferrovia too-ra-loo
III
Fatela andare ragazzi, 
datele una tirata
trascinate l’ancora via dal fango
e fate filare la bastarda
Siamo della ferrovia too-ra-loo
IV
Fate filare il bozzello e bloccatelo
date un giro all’argano
portate su la dannata ancora 
perchè siamo in partenza
Siamo della ferrovia too-ra-loo
V
Via le morse, due bozzelli 
issate o morite
piegate la schiena, miei bravacci,
alzate un po’ di dannata polvere
Siamo della ferrovia too-ra-loo
VI
Whisky o marinaio o
l’approdo è in vista
è un vero inferno per le ragazze che aspettano
al vecchio faro di Nantucket
Siamo della ferrovia too-ra-loo

NOTE
1) He-bang, she-bang are nonsense vocables,  Leland’s 1890 dictionary of slang has “shebang” as American slang for a shanty (a shack) [He-bang, she-bang sono molto probabilmente parole senza senso, nel “Dictionary of Slang, Jargon & Cant” di Leland Shebang= baracca, capanno]
2) see “Poor Paddy works on the railway.”
3) Webster’s dictionary of 1913 had not only the meanings of “mule” and “Negro”, but also “a minstrel, who plays on several instruments”. Hulton writes: A 1928 article on “Midshipman Jargon” (in American Speech, Vol. II, No. 9) has that in the American Navy man’s jargon, moke signifies “dark” or “black” and was also” for a Negro or Filipino.” A 2001 posting on the linguist listserve by Quinion has that it was originally a term for a mule, becoming first an offensive term for a Black man, then by the 1850s (around the probable time of this chantey) it was generalized to mean some foolish or contemptible person. It evolved into the form “mook.” 
[Il dizionario di Webster del 1913 traduce con “mulo” e “negro”, ma anche “un menestrello che suona diversi strumenti”. Scrive Hulton: “un articolo del 1928 su “Midshipman Jargon” (in American Speech, Vol. II, n. 9) dice che nel gergo americano della marina americana, moke significa “oscuro” o “nero” e stava per “per un negro o filippino “. Una pubblicazione del 2001 sulla lista dei linguisti di Quinion dice che in origine era un termine per mulo, diventando prima un termine offensivo per uomo nero, quindi nel 1850 (probabile periodo di questo chantey) significava in genere qualcosa di sciocco o persona spregevole.”]
4) in the railroad “pickin’ on a banjo” was a euphemism for digging with a shovel. [per gli sterratori che lavoravano nella costruzione della linea ferrovia americana “pickin’ on a banjo”= scavare con la pala]
5) Stephen Wilson writes: Give her flamin’ gip = give her hell / give her a telling off
6) let ‘er rip = espressione idiomatica, lasciarla andare a tutta birra/a tutto gas, the bastard è riferita all’ancora
7) CHOCK A BLOCK, CHOCKER Chock-a-block is an old Naval expression, meaning “Complete” or “Full up”; synonyms were “Two blocks” and “Block and block”. It derives from the use of a hauling tackle – when the two blocks of the purchase were touching each other the lower one could obviously be hoisted no further, and so the work was completed. Modern slang has corrupted the expression to “Chocker”, meaning “Fed up”. (from here)
Chok: the word is thought to have come from chock-full (or choke-full), meaning ‘full to choking’. This dates back to the 15th century This meaning was later used to give a name to the wedges of wood which are used to secure moving objects – chocks. These chocks were used on ships and are referred to in William Falconer’s, An universal dictionary of the marine, 1769: “Chock, a sort of wedge used to confine a cask or other weighty body..when the ship is in motion.  A block and tackle is a pulley system used on sailing ships to hoist the sails ‘chock-a-block’   The phrase describes what occurs the system is raised to its fullest extent – when there is no more rope free and the blocks jam tightly together. in Richard H. Dana “Hauling the reef-tackles chock-a-block.” Nautical. having the blocks drawn closetogether, as when the tackle is hauled to theutmost. (with reference to tackle having the two blocks run close together ) (from here)
“Chock a block”, talvolta anche scritto come un’unica parola “chockablock”  è l’unione di “chockfull” che significa pieno e “block and tackle” che è un tipo di paranco utilizzato sulle barche a vela; si usa colloquialmente per dire “affollato”
per sapere cosa sia un paranco e come funzioni

John Short Version

Jeff Warner in Short Sharp Shanties : Sea songs of a Watchet sailor vol 3


I
He-back, she-back, daddy shot a bear, 
Shot him in the ass
and he never tuched the hair,
I’m just from the railroad, too-rer-loo,
Oh the old moke picking on the banjo.
II
Roll her boys, bowl her boys,
give her flaming gip
Drag the anchor off the mud
and let the bastard rip 
I’m just from the railroad..
[CHORUS]
Hoo-roo! What’s the matter now?
I’m just from the railroad, too-rer-loo,
I’m just from the railroad, too-rer-loo,
Oh the old moke picking on the banjo.
III
Rock-a-block, chock-a-block,
heave the caps’n round,
Fish the flaming anchor up,
for we are outward bound.
I’m just from the railroad..
IV
Out chocks, two blocks,
heave away or bust,
Bend yer backs, me bully boys,
kick up some flamin’ dust.
I’m just from the railroad…
V
Whisky-O, johnny-O,
the mudhook is in sight,
‘Tis a hell-of-a-way to the gals that wait,
an’ the ol’ Nantucket Light;
I’m just from the railroad..
VI
Pat, get back, take in yer slack.
Heave away, me boys;
Heave away, me bully boys,
why don’t ye make some noise?
I’m just from the railroad..
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
I
He-back, she-back, papà sparò a un orso
gli sparò nel posteriore
e non gli aveva torto un capello
Sono solo della ferrovia too-rer-loo
Oh il vecchio Moke che suona il banjo!
II
Fatela andare ragazzi, 
datele una tirata
trascinate l’ancora via dal fango
e fate filare la bastarda
sono solo della ferrovia too-rer-loo
CORO
Hoo-roo! Qual’è il problema ora?
Sono solo della ferrovia too-rer-loo,
Sono solo della ferrovia too-rer-loo,
Oh il vecchio Moke che suona il banjo
III
Fate filare il bozzello e bloccatelo 
date un giro all’argano
portate su la dannata ancora
perchè siamo in partenza
sono solo della ferrovia too-rer-loo
IV
Via le morse, due bozzelli 
issiamo o moriamo
piegate la schiena, miei bravacci,
alzate un po’ di dannata polvere
sono solo della ferrovia too-rer-loo
V
Whisky o marinaio o
l’approdo è in vista
è un vero inferno per le ragazze che aspettano
al vecchio faro di Nantucket
sono solo della ferrovia too-rer-loo
VI
Pat, torna indietro, prendi il tuo posto
issiamo, ragazzi
issiamo, miei bravi
perché non vi date da fare?
Sono solo della ferrovia too-rer-loo

LINK
https://mudcat.org/@displaysong.cfm?SongID=4424,4424&SongID=4424,4424
https://mainlynorfolk.info/danny.spooner/songs/theoldmokepickingonabanjo.html
http://cliffhaslam.com/?page_id=322
https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=71721
https://www.fresnostate.edu/folklore/ballads/Be022.html

To Anacreon in Heaven

Diana Gabaldon

From “Drums of Autumn” of the Outlander saga written by Diana Gabaldon chapter 1.
We are in the New World at Charleston, june 1767, a friend of Jamie’s from Ardsmuir, Gavin Hayes, has been hunged and the gang is drinking to the memory of Gavin in a tavern:
“A clear tenor voice, wobbly with drink, but sweet nonetheless, was singing a familiar tune, audible over the babble of talk.

Da “Tamburi d’Autunno” della saga di Outlander, scritto da Diana Gabaldon, capitolo 1.
Siamo nel Nuovo Mondo a Charleston, giugno 1767, un amico di Jamie dalla prigionia a Ardsmuir, Gavin Hayes, è stato impiccato e la banda sta  bevendo alla memoria di Gavin in una taverna:
Una chiara voce da tenore, un po’ esitante per l’alcol, ma pur sempre dolce, stava cantando una famosa melodia, udibile sopra il confuso chiacchiericcio della sala.

The song sung by Duncan Innes is “To Anacreon in heav’n”, the official song of The Anacreontic Society established in London in november 1766 [La canzone cantata da Duncan Innes è “To Anacreon in heav’n”, il canto ufficiale del Club degli Anacreonti costituitosi a Londra nel novembre del 1766]

“To Anacreon in heav’n,
where he sat in full glee,
A few sons of harmony sent a petition,
That he their inspirer and patron would be (1)!
When this answer arrived
from the jolly old Grecian (2):
‘Voice, fiddle, and flute,
No longer be mute!
I’ll lend you my name
and inspire you to boot. (3)
[Chorus]
And, besides, I’ll instruct you like me to entwine,
The Myrtle of Venus with Bacchus’s vine!
Last stanza
Ye sons of Anacreon, then, join hand in hand:
Preserve unanimity, friendship and love;
Tis yours to support what’s so happily planned:
You’ve the sanction of gods and the fiat of Jove,
While thus we agree, our toast let it be
May our club flourish happy, united and free!
Chorus
And long may the sons of Anacreon entwine
The myrtle of Venus with Bacchus’ vine.

Traduzione italiano di Valeria Galassi*
Ad Anacreonte in cielo,
seduto in allegrezza,
i figli di Armonia inviarono un’istanza:
ch’egli tosto ispirasse il loro poetare!
Ed ecco qual risposta
ricevettero dall’aere:
“Voce, violino e flauto,
il vostro canto intonate orsù!
Che alla vostra arte il mio nome
presterò da quassù!
[Coro]
E inoltre vi insegnerò a intrecciare, a scanso di ogni smacco, Il mirto di Venere e il vino di Bacco
Ultima strofa (mia traduzione)
Figli di Anacreonte, unite tosto le mani:
per serbare concordanza, amicizia, amore;
siete autorizzati a sostenere quanto felicemente predisposto con il beneplacito degli Dei e la volontà di Giove,
mentre così concordiamo allora brindiamo!
Che il nostro club prosperi felice, unito e libero!
Coro
E a lungo possano i figli di Anacreonte intrecciare il mirto di Venere e il vino di Bacco

NOTE
From Drums of Autumn by Diana Gabaldon, chapter 1, “A Hanging in Eden”. Copyright© 1997 by Diana Gabaldon. 
* dall’edizione italiana “Tamburi d’Autunno” di Diana Gabaldon
1) the Greek poet Anacreon is invoked  into the song, to inspire the music of the evening [nella canzone si invoca il poeta greco Anacreonte perchè ispiri la musica della serata]
2) la traduzione letterale è “Quando questa risposta arrivò dal vecchio greco giulivo” 
3) “The singer’s voice cracked painfully on “voice, fiddle, and flute,” but he sang stoutly on, despite the laughter from his audience. I smiled wryly to myself as he hit the final couplet..”(From Drums of Autumn )
“Benchè la sua voce si fosse penosamente incrinata su “voce, violino e flauto”, il cantante continuò senza
cedimenti a dispetto delle risate del pubblico.” (da “Tamburi d’Autunno” )
In fact, the melody presents considerable singing difficulties that only a trained soloist voice can face, the group sang only on the two final verses of each stanza. The moment of the ritual singing was very solemn (just as a hymn is sung) also accompanied by a hand-in hand chain of all the participants arranged in a circle in the refrain of the last stanza
In effetti la melodia presenta notevoli difficoltà canore che solo una voce solista allenata può affrontare, il gruppo cantava solo sui due versi finali di ogni strofa. Il momento del canto di rito era molto solenne (proprio come si canta un inno) accompagnato anche da una catena di mano-nella mano di tutti i partecipanti disposti in circolo nel coro dell’ultima strofa

Claire recognizes in the melody the future American national anthem and hums:
“Oh, say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave

O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?”
Claire riconosce nella melodia il futuro inno nazionale americano e canticchia
“Oh fratelli, ditemi, sventola ancora lo stellato stendardo
sulla terra dei liberi e la patria degli audaci?”

Outlander series: season 4

In the Tv series Outlander it’s the season four, first episode “America the Beautiful”, but in the scene at the inn they sing only the Caitrhis, the funeral lament in Gaelic.
Nella serie televisiva Outlander siamo alla stagione quattro il primo episodio America the Beautiful, ma nella scena alla locanda viene solo rappresentato il Caithris, il lamento funebre in gaelico

Outlander, Lament for Gavin Hayes:
Eisd ris! Eisd ris! Dh’fhàg thu, Gabhainn, sinn fo bhròn!
Eisd ris! Eisd ris! ‘S truagh nach eil thu fhathast glè òg!
(in english Hear him! Hear him! You left us all full of sadness, Gavin.
Hear him! Hear him! It is a pity you are not still very young.

Anacreontic Society

Except that the Anacreontic Society was founded in London by about twenty rich and respected upper-class gentlemen just seven months earlier than the setting in the Gabaldon book and it would seem very unlikely that the anthem could have reached the ears of an ex- Jacobite smuggler penniless in Edinburgh! Being “To Anacreon in heaven” an official chant of the Society almost a “constitutional hymn” it could have been composed already from the first meetings, but we have news of the existence of an Anacreontic Song only from the date of 11 December 1773, from the diary of John Marsh, who took part as member, in one of the Society meetings. (These Gentlemen’s Clubs were widespread in the eighteenth century and were often Masonic Lodges or affiliated with them.)
Senonchè  il Club degli Anacreonti è stato fondato a Londra da una ventina di ricchi e rispettati gentiluomini della upper-class  giusto sette mesi prima rispetto all’ambientazione nel libro e sembrerebbe molto improbabile che l’inno sia potuto giungere alle orecchie di un contrabbandiere ex-giacobita squattrinato di Edimburgo! Essendo “To Anacreon in heaven” un canto ufficiale della Società quasi un “inno costituzionale” poteva essere stato composto già dalle prime riunioni, ma abbiamo notizie  dell’esistenza di una Anacreontic Song  solo dalla data dell’11 dicembre 1773, dal diario di John Marsh che partecipò per l’appunto come membro ad uno dei raduni della società. (Questi Club di gentiluomini erano molto diffusi nel Settecento ed erano spesso delle Logge Massoniche o affiliate ad esse.) 
The Gentlemen’s Club of London had as its main purpose the meeting of the members (fortnightly / monthly or weekly, there is no agreement on the matter) for listening to an evening concert held by the greatest musicians in London, followed by dinner and a festive atmosphere of “merry” songs and drink until midnight. Right after the sumptuous dinner the president of the Club sang “The Anacreon Song”, an opening hymn of the “after dinner” in which Anacreonte was invoked to preside over their symposium for the tasting of excellent and refined wines and to sing or recite convivial poems according to ancient custom.
Probably the evening degenerated as in the illustration by William Hogarth!
Il Club di Gentiluomini londinesi aveva come scopo principale la riunione dei soci (a cadenza quindicinale/mensile o settimanale, non c’è concordanza in merito) per l’ascolto di un concerto serale tenuto dai migliori musicisti della piazza, a cui seguiva la cena e un clima festoso tra canzoncine “allegre” e bevute fino alla mezzanotte. Giusto dopo la sontuosa cena il presidente del Club cantava “The Anacreon Song”, un inno d’apertura del “dopo cena” in cui si invocava Anacreonte a presiedere al simposio per la degustazione di ottimi e raffinati vini e cantare o recitare dei carmi conviviali secondo il costume antico.  
Probabile che la serata degenerasse come nell’illustrazione di William Hogarth

A Midnight Modern Conversation from The Works of William Hogarth 1733

The text of the song is attributed to Ralph Tomlinson who was president of the Club in 1776, while John Stafford Smith is credited (again from the diaries of another member of the Club) as a composer (although he never claimed the authorship of the melody).
The Club broke up in 1786, but the melody became extremely popular in both Britain and America, and was used for the text “The Star-Spangled Banner” (1812) which became, in 1931, the American national anthem .
Il testo del canto è attribuito a Ralph Tomlinson che fu presidente del Club nel 1776, mentre John Stafford Smith viene accreditato (sempre dai diari di un altro socio del Club) come compositore (sebbene egli non abbia mai rivendicato la paternità della melodia).
Il Club si sciolse nel 1786, ma la melodia divenne estremamente popolare sia in Gran Bretagna che in America, ed è stata utilizzata per il testo “The Star-Spangled Banner” (1812) che è diventato, nel 1931, l’inno nazionale americano.

The irish angle [La pista irlandese]

Geoff Cobb in Irish America writes: “In 1913, on the song’s hundredth anniversary, a scholarly commission was formed to determine conclusively the song’s origins. The anthem at that time was a popular patriotic song, but it was still just another patriotic tune. Only in1931 was Scott’s song officially adopted as the nation’s anthem. So, where did the music for “The Star Spangled Banner” come from? The commission, deliberating on this question, examined evidence from a variety of sources. It finally came to the conclusion that the music most probably originated in Ireland.” (from here)
Geoff Cobb in Irish America scrive “Nel 1913, nel centenario della canzone, fu formata una commissione accademica per determinare in modo definitivo le origini della canzone. L’inno in quel momento era una canzone popolare patriottica, ma era ancora solo un altro motivo patriottico. Solo nel 1931 la canzone di Scott fu ufficialmente adottata come inno nazionale. Quindi, da dove viene la musica di “The Star Spangled Banner”? La commissione, deliberando su questa domanda, esaminò le prove da una varietà di fonti. Alla fine arrivò alla conclusione che la musica probabilmente ebbe origine in Irlanda.” (tradotto da qui)

Thus John Stafford Smith would have only arranged a previous Irish melody on the words of the Anacreon Song. Among the authors accredited by the Commission (see, however, the discussion in “The Star Spangled Banner by Oscar George Theodore Sonneck -1914) Turlough O’Carolan with his Bumper Squire Jones (1723).
Three strophes of the original text in Irish Gaelic have been preserved, the English version was written by Arthur Baron Dawson and begins as follows:
Ye good fellow all,
Who love to be told, where there’s claret good store,
Attend to the call
Of one who’s ne’er frighted,
But greatly delighted
With six bottles more!
Be sure yell don’t pass the good house Monyglass,
Which the jolly red god so peculiarly owns.
Twill well suit your humour, For pray what would you more,
Than mirth with good claret and bumpers, Squire Jones? (see more)
It is an ode to Bacchus, so fashionable in the convivial symposia among the british gentlemen of 600-700.
Così John Stafford Smith avrebbe solo arrangiato una precedente melodia irlandese sulle parole dell’Anacreon Song. Tra gli autori accreditati dalla Commissione (si veda però la discussione in “The Star Spangled Banner di Oscar George Theodore Sonneck -1914, qui) Turlough O’Carolan con la sua Bumper Squire Jones (1723)
Del testo originario in gaelico irlandese si sono conservate tre strofe, la versione in inglese è stata scritta da Arthur Baron Dawson: si tratta di una canzone in ode a Bacco, così di moda nei simposi conviviali tra i gentlemen del 600-700.

The irish William McKeague from County Fermanag wrote a march (“The March of the Royal Inniskillings”) in 1750 for the Royal Inniskillings based on O’Carolan’s tune, which could be the link with “To Anacreon in heaven”.
L’irlandese William McKeague della contea di Fermanag  scrisse una marcia ( “The March of the Royal Inniskillings” ) per il Reggimento Reale di Inniskilling nel 1750 basata sulla melodia di O’Carolan, che potrebbe essere il tratto d’unione con la “To Anacreon in heaven”

The english angle [La pista inglese]

Except that “Bumper Squire Jones” is perhaps an arrangement of the English drinking song “The Rummer” * named after the famous London tavern at 45 Charing Cross. The song went to print in London in 1686, already reported as a country dance by John Playford in his Dancing Master (7th edition 1666) and in later edition with the title “The Devil in the Bush”
“The Rummer was kept until about 1702 by Samuel Prior, and the clientele was a combination of army officers, Parliamentarians, aristocrats and merchants. A Masonic lodge also met there.” (from here)
Senonchè “Bumper Squire Jones” è forse un arrangiamento della drinking song inglese “The Rummer” intitolata così per via della nota taverna londinese al 45 di Charing Cross. La canzone è andata in stampa a Londra nel 1686, già riportata come contraddanza da John Playford nel suo Dancing Master (7^ edizione 1666 ) e in un edizione successiva con il titolo The Devil in the Bush.
Il Rummer fu tenuto fino al 1702 da Samuel Prior, e la clientela era una combinazione di ufficiali dell’esercito, parlamentari, aristocratici e mercanti, e vi si riuniva anche una loggia massonica“. 
* From Dutch roemer a glass for drinking toasts [dall’olandese, un bicchiere per i brindisi]

LINK
https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Anacreontic_Song

https://richardnilsen.com/tag/anacreontic-society-of-london/
https://blogs.loc.gov/music/2010/03/our-national-anthem/
https://irishamerica.com/2017/06/weekly-comment-is-the-star-spangled-banner-a-traditional-irish-melody/

https://archive.org/details/starspangledbann014329mbp/page/n15
https://parodyproject.com/anacreon-star-spangled-banner/
https://www.loc.gov/item/ihas.100010460/

https://tunearch.org/wiki/Annotation:Bumper_Squire_Jones
https://thesession.org/tunes/2623
http://www.irishpage.com/songs/carolan/bumper.html

https://en.wikiludia.com/wiki/Talk:The_Star-Spangled_Banner/Archive_1#The_Origin_if_the_Tune
http://www.inniskillingsmuseum.com/

https://books.google.it/books?id=NdlWAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=The+Rummer+english+tune&source=bl&ots=g4mCbuWvle&sig=ACfU3U3nao8kmj_uNpr9W3s2EmRyyC1WYw&hl=it&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjJ9uuI0fPiAhVxMewKHYHvAkYQ6AEwCnoECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20Rummer%20english%20tune&f=false
https://tunearch.org/wiki/Rummer_(The)
https://tunearch.org/wiki/Annotation:Rummer_(The)
https://tunearch.org/wiki/Devil_in_the_Bush

https://www.62days.com/it/periodico/bicchieri-d%E2%80%99epoca-georgiana/

Bear Away Yankee, Bear Away Boy

The shanty “Bear Away Yankee” (Deep The Water, Shallow The Shore) comes from the singing of West Indies sailors, collected by Alan Lomax and Roger D. Abrahams in the smaller Caribbean islands and published in “Deep The Water, Shallow The Shore “(1974). From the field recordings made in 1962 it was released Caribbean Voyage: Nevis And St. Kitts” album
The chantey-singing fishermen, under the leadership of Walter Roberts or Reginald Syder performed songs used for boat hauling or while sailing, many reflecting past rather than contemporary practice. Notwithstanding, versions of several of the songs are also featured in Abrahams’ book about the tradition: Deep the Water, Shallow the Shore: Three Essays on Shantying in the West Indies, (Austin, University of Texas Press, 1974). (from here)
La shanty “Bear Away Yankee” (Deep The Water, Shallow The Shore) viene dai canti di lavoro nelle Indie Occidentali, collezionata da Alan Lomax e da Roger D. Abrahams nelle isole minori dei Caraibi e pubblicata nella raccolta “Deep The Water, Shallow The Shore” (1974).
Dalle registrazioni sul campo effettuate nel 1962 è stato realizzato l’album “Caribbean Voyage: Nevis And St. Kitts
I pescatori cantavano, sotto la guida di Walter Roberts o Reginald Syder, le canzoni usate per il trasporto di imbarcazioni o durante la navigazione, molte delle quali riflettevano il passato piuttosto che la pratica contemporanea. Nonostante ciò, le versioni di molte delle canzoni sono anche presenti nel libro di Abrahams sulla tradizione: Deep the Water, Shallow the Shore: tre saggi su Shantying nelle Indie occidentali, (Austin, University of Texas Press, 1974). (tradotto da qui)

A rowing chanty presumably dates back to 1831 when on a river trip in Guyana, a White British captain observed the enslaved Africans rowing his boat to sing “their favourite song: Velly well, yankee, velly well oh!
Una rowing chanty che si presume risalga al 1831 quando,durante un viaggio fluviale in Guyana, un capitano britannico bianco osservò degli schiavi africani che remavano nella sua barca cantare “la loro canzone preferita: Velly well, yankee, velly well oh!!

Roy Gumbs live Newcaste, isle of Nevis, 1962

Hulton Clint writes “The first is a recording that Alan Lomax made of Roy Gumbs and party of Newcastle, Nevis in July 1962. The second (starting 1:40) is a rendition presented by Roger Abrahams in _Deep the Water, Shallow the Shore_, from his fieldwork with fishermen in Nevis 1963-66. The textual themes are the same, but the melody noted by Abrahams is different than these men’s colleagues had sung a year or so earlier for Lomax.
La prima parte è la registrazione che Alan Lomax fece di Roy Gumbs e compagni di Newcastle, Nevis, nel luglio 1962. La seconda (a partire da 1:40) è la versione presentata da Roger Abrahams in “Deep Water, Shallow the Shore”, dal suo lavoro sul campo con pescatori a Nevis 1963-66. I temi testuali sono gli stessi, ma la melodia annotata da Abrahams è diversa da quella che i loro colleghi avevano cantato un anno prima per Lomax

Hulton Clint Saint Vincent variant 
This rendition was documented by Roger Abrahams in 1966, and the Vincentian group, The Barrouallie Whalers
He notes: Like many of these men’s songs, the lyrics have an element of taunting. Essentially, it critiques those who would not participate in the work of fishing but who would nevertheless expect to share in the spoils of that work.”
Questa interpretazione è stata documentata da Roger Abrahams nel 1966, e il gruppo vincenziano, The Barrouallie Whalers, Hulton Clint osserva: “Come molte di queste canzoni virili, i testi hanno un elemento di scherno. In sostanza, si critica coloro che pur non partecipando al lavoro di pesca, si aspettavano comunque di condividere il bottino di quel lavoro “.

Kenny Wollesen & The Himalayas Marching Band in Son Of Rogues Gallery ‘Pirate Ballads, Sea Songs & Chanteys ANTI 2013


Bear away (1) Yankee, bear away boy (repeat twice)
Oh what we tell John Gould (2) today?
Bear away Yankee, bear away boy
Oh, deep the water an’ shallow the shore
Bear away Yankee, bear away boy
Bear away Yankee, bear away boy
Bear away Yankee, bear away boy

Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
Vento in poppa americano, vento in poppa ragazzo (ripete due volte)
Che diciamo a John Gould oggi?
Vento in poppa..
profondo il mare e fondale basso a riva
Vento in poppa..
Vento in poppa..
Vento in poppa..

NOTE
Like many shanties, the lyrics vary from singer to singer, especially with these fairly simple examples. [Come molti chantey, i testi variano da cantante a cantante]
Pull away all through the day
Bear away to Noble Bay
1) Bear away è un termine nautico per poggiare (o puggiare)
2) John Gould is supposed to have been a shipowner who lost his cargo [John Gould potrebbe essere un armatore che ha perso il suo carico]

LINK
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-ix.do?ix=recording&id=5936&idType=performerId&sortBy=abc
https://www.mustrad.org.uk/reviews/nevis.htm
http://neurosis02.gz01.bdysite.com/index.php/2019/01/13/caribbean-voyage-nevis-and-st-kitts/
http://thejovialcrew.com/?page_id=5180
http://www.tomlewis.net/lyrics/bear_away.htm
https://www.bethsnotesplus.com/2013/12/bear-away-yankee-bear-away-boy.html

River Come Down (Bamboo)

Not a traditional Caribbean song but written by Dave van Ronk who has recorded this song as ‘River Come Down’ on his 1961 Folkways album FA 2383 called ‘Van Ronk Sings Earthy Ballads And Blues’. A rewrite of “River, river she come down” by Dick Weissman. Covered by Peter, Paul & Mary, Ry Cooder (naming it ‘River Come Down Aka Bamboo‘) 
The only song I ever wrote that made me any money, and I hate it. It started out as a guitar exercise, but since I usually taught songs in those days, I needed lyrics. Vaguely remembering a piece that Dick Weissman used to do on the banjo, I carelessly flung together some nonsensical doggerel and used Dick’s chorus – “River, river she come down.” My students seemed happy enough, and that should have been that, except that Peter, Paul & Mary, who were in the process of getting their act together, took a fancy to it. Renamed ‘Bamboo,’ PP&M performed it on their first album, which sold seven trillion copies. Particularly embarrassing was the way some of the pop music critics homed in on the lyrics. I cringed when they called them ‘surrealist.’ One erudite soul (I forget who) compared them with Garcia Lorca. Fortunately, the Muzak version was an instrumental. I shared the royalties (and the chagrin) with Dick.’ (from Dave’s liner notes to The Folkways Years 1969-61)” (from here)
Non è una canzone caraibica tradizionale, ma è stata scritta da Dave van Ronk che ha registrato questa canzone come “River Come Down” nel suo album intitolato “Van Ronk Sings Earthy Ballads And Blues” (1961). Una riscrittura della”River, river she come down” di Dick Weissman. Fatta come cover anche da Peter, Paul & Mary e Ry Cooder (“River Come Down Aka Bamboo”)
L’unica canzone che abbia mai scritto che mi ha fatto guadagnare dei soldi. L’ho cominciata come un esercizio di chitarra, ma dato che in quei giorni solitamente insegnavo canzoni, avevo bisogno di testi. Ricordando vagamente un pezzo che Dick Weissman faceva sul banjo, ho sbadatamente buttato giù delle  battute senza senso e ho usato il coro di Dick – “River, river she come down”. I miei studenti sembravano abbastanza felici, e sarebbe finita lì, sennonchè è piaciuta a Peter, Paul e Mary, che stavano per suonare insieme. Intitolandola ‘Bamboo’, PP & M la eseguirono nel loro primo album, che ha venduto sette trilioni di copie. Particolarmente imbarazzante il modo in cui alcuni critici della musica pop si sono concentrati sui testi. Un’anima erudita (ho dimenticato chi) li ha paragonati a Garcia Lorca, ma fortunatamente la versione Muzak è stata strumentale. Ho condiviso i diritti d’autore (e il dispiacere) con Dick. ” (dalle note di copertina di Dave a “The Folkways Years 1969-61”)

Dick Weissman vs Dave van Ronk

The Journeymen (John Phillips, Scott McKenzie, Dick Weissman)) 1961


Chorus
River oh river She come down
River oh river She come down
I (x2)
My gal’s across the river,
my gal’s across the river
My gal’s across the river,
Won’t you come over
Head on, won’t you come home
II
Build a raft of bamboo,
Build a raft of bamboo
Build a raft of bamboo
Float it across the river
Head on, float it across the river
III
Floating across the river
Floating across the river
Floating across the river
See her come over
Head on, see her come over
IV
Will dance on the bank side
Will dance on the bank side
Will dance on the bank side
Glad you come over
Head on, glad you came over
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
Coro
Fiume, oh fiume lei scende 
Fiume, oh fiume lei scende 
I
La mia ragazza è sul fiume
La mia ragazza è sul fiume
La mia ragazza è sul fiume
non passerai,
a testa alta verso casa?
II
Costruisci una zattera di bamboo,
Costruisci una zattera di bamboo,
Costruisci una zattera di bamboo,
falla galleggiare sul fiume
a testa alta, falla galleggiare sul fiume
III
Galleggiare sul fiume,
Galleggiare sul fiume,
Galleggiare sul fiume,
guardala passare,
a testa alta, guardala passare
IV
Balleremo sugli argini
Balleremo sugli argini
Balleremo sugli argini
sono contento che tu sia venuta
a testa alta, sono contento che tu sia venuta

Dave van Ronk in “Van Ronk Sings” album (1961)

Son Of Rogues Gallery

Beth Orton in Son Of Rogues Gallery ‘Pirate Ballads, Sea Songs & Chanteys ANTI 2013


I (x2)
You take a stick of bamboo,
you take a stick of bamboo
You take a stick of bamboo
and you throw it in the water
Oh oh Hanaah (1)
Chorus
River oh river
She come down
River oh river
She come down
II (x2)
You travel on the river,
you travel on the river
You travel on the river,
you travel on the water
Oh oh Hanaah
III (x2)
My home’s across the river,
my home’s across the river
My home’s across the river,
my home’s across the water
Oh oh Hanaah
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
I
Prendi un bastone di bamboo,
prendi un bastoni di bamboo
prendi un bastone di bamboo
e gettalo in acqua
oh, oh Hanaah
Coro
Fiume, oh fiume
lei scende (tramonta)
Fiume, oh fiume
lei scende (tramonta)
II
Viaggi sul fiume,
viaggi sul fiume
viaggi sul fiume
viaggi sull’acqua
oh, oh Hanaah
III
La mia casa è sul fiume
La mia casa è sul fiume
La mia casa è sul fiume
La mia casa è sull’acqua
oh, oh Hanaah

NOTE
1) the sun (see go down, old Hannah)

LINK
http://www.alwaysontherun.net/beth.htm
https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=7273

Little Sally Racket

“Little Sally Racket” (“Haul her away”) is a sea shanty with peppery jokes about the women of the ports and in particular from Liverpool, the subject lends itself to naughty versions and a lot of variants. The rhythm is related to the Cheerly man shanty, revisited in rap style in the Son of Rogues Gallery compilation.
“Little Sally Racket” ma anche “Haul her away” è una sea shanthy con pepate battute sulle donnine dei porti e in particolare di quelle che bazzicavano per i moli di Liverpool, il soggetto si presta a versioni più “spinte”  e chilometriche varianti.
Il ritmo è imparentato con la Cheerly man shanty, rivisitato in stile rap nella compilation Son of Rogues Gallery.

Shanty Crew Kreuzberg (I, VI, II, V, VII)

Haul Her Away · Maddy Prior & The Girls in Bib & Tuck 2002


I

Little Nancy Dawson, haul ‘er away
She’s got flannel drawers on, haul ‘er away
So says our old bosun, haul ‘er away
With me hauley-high-O! Haul ‘er away!
II
Little Betty Picker (Baker),
Ran off with a Quaker,
Guess her mom couldn’t shake her
III
Little Suzie Skinner
She said she’s a beginner
And she prefers it to her dinner
IV
Little Kitty Carson
Got off with the parson
Now she’s got a little barson
V
Little Dolly Docket,
Washes in a bucket,
She’s a tart but doesn’t look it,
VI
Little Sally Racket
She pawned my new jacket
And she never did regret it
VII
Up my fightin’ cocks boys
Up and split her blocks now
And we’ll stretch her luff, boys
And that’ll be enough, boys
Traduzione italiano di Cattia Salto
I
La piccola Nancy Dawson ala e vira
si è messa i mutandoni di flanella ala e vira
così dice il nostro nostromo, ala e vira
con me tira su! ala e vira
II
Piccola Betty Picker (Baker)
scappata con un quacchero/ credo che la mamma non riesca a dimenticarla
III
La piccola Susy Skinner
diceva di essere una principiante
e lo preferisce alla cena
IV
La piccola Kitty Carson
è scappata con il parroco
e adesso ha un pargoletto
V
La piccola Dolly Docker
si lava in un secchio
è una mignotta ma non lo sembra
VI
La piccola Sally Racket
si è impegnata la mia nuova giubba
e non se n’è mai pentita
VII
Su miei galletti da combattimento
su e ??  i suoi bozzelli
 e orziamo ragazzi
e basta così, ragazzi

Sissy Bounce

The rappers Freedia and Katey have integrated the text of the sea shanty rambling with rhymes and adding a hint of sissy bounce, in New Orleans style.
I rappers Freedia e Katey hanno integrato il testo della sea shanty andando a ruota libera con le rime e aggiungendo un pizzico di sissy bounce, in stile New Orleans.

Katey Red & Big Freedia with Akron Family in Son Of Rogues Gallery ‘Pirate Ballads, Sea Songs & Chanteys ANTI 2013

LINK
https://mainlynorfolk.info/lloyd/songs/sallyracket.html
http://www.cobbersbushband.com/haul_em_away.htm
https://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=72326
http://www.wareham-whalers.org.uk/words/CD_words_pdf/Haul_Er_Away.pdf
http://www.musicanet.org/robokopp/shanty/cheerily.htm