Archivi categoria: EMIGRATION SONG/Canti sull’emigrazione

Shamrock shore

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Two texts in search of an author, with the same title “Shamrock shore” we distinguish two different songs, both as text and as melody, the first reported by PW Joyce at the end of the nineteenth century is an irish emigration song, the second ever traditional is also an emigration song, but above all a protest song, the social and political denunciation of the Irish question.


Already at the end of the 1800s P. W. Joyce reported it in his  “Ancient Irish Music” to then republish it in 1909, so he writes “This air, and one verse of the song, was published for the first time by me in my Ancient Irish Music, from which it is reprinted here. It was a favourite in my young days, and I have several copies of the words printed on ballad-sheets“. Again P. W. Joyce in Old Irish Folk Music (1909) reports further text
“Ye muses mine, with me combine and grant me your relief,
While here alone I sigh and moan, I’m overwhelmed with grief:
While here alone I sigh and moan far from my friends and home;
My troubled mind no rest can find since I left the Shamrock shore.”

The Irish emigrant arrives in London, the tune is that generally known with the title of”Erin Shore” (see)

Horslips from Happy to meet, sorry to part, 1972

PW Joyce, 1890
In early spring when small birds sing and lambkins sport and play,
My way I took, my friends forsook, and came to Dublin quay;
I enter’d as a passenger, and to England I sailed o’er;
I bade farewell to all my friends,
and I left the shamrock shore.
To London fair, I did repair some pleasure there to find
I found it was a lovely place,
and pleasant to mine eye
The ladies to where fair to view,
and rich the furs they wore
But none I saw, that could compare to the maids of the shamrock shore

PARTY SONG: You brave young sons of Erin’s Isle

More than a song, a political rant about the need for the independence of Ireland and the evils of landlordism.
Matt Molloy, Tommy Peoples, Paul Brady (1978)

You brave young sons of Erin’s Isle
I hope you will attend awhile
‘Tis the wrongs of dear old Ireland I am going to relate
‘Twas black and cursed was the day
When our parliament was taken away
And all of our griefs and sufferings commences from that day (1)
For our hardy sons and daughters fair
To other countries must repair
And leave their native land behind in sorrow to deplore
For seek employment they must roam
Far, far away from the native home
From that sore, oppressed island that they call the shamrock shore
Now Ireland is with plenty blessed
But the people, we are sore oppressed
All by those cursed tyrants we are forced for to obey
Some haughty landlords for to please
Our houses and our lands they’ll seize
To put fifty farms into one (2) and take us all away
Regardless of the widow’s sighs
The mother’s tears and orphan’s cries
In thousands we were driven from home which grieves my heart full sore
We were forced by famine and disease (3) To emigrate across the seas
From that sore, opressed island that they called the shamrock shore
Our sustenance all taken away
The tithes and taxes for to pay
To support that law-protected church to which they do adhere (4)
And our Irish gentry, well you know
To other countries they do go
And the money from old Ireland they squandered here and there
For if our squires  would stay at home
And not to other countries roam
But to build mills and factories (5) here to employ the laboring poor
For if we had trade and commerce here
To me no nation could compare
To that sore, oppressed island that they call the shamrock shore
John Bull (6), he boasts, he laughs with scorn
And he says that Irishman is born
To be always discontented for at home we cannot agree
But we’ll banish the tyrants from our land
And in harmony like sisters stand
To demand the rights of Ireland,
let us all united be
And our parliament in College Green
For to assemble, it will be seen
And happy days in Erin’s Isle we soon will have once more
And dear old Ireland soon will be
A great and glorious country
And peace and blessings soon will smile all around the shamrock shore

1) The song is obviously post-Union (1800), because it refers to the dissolved Irish Parliament
2) the plague of landlordism
3)  in 1846 the entire crop of potatoes (basic diet of the Irish) was all destroyed due to a fungus, the peronospera; the “great famine” occurred (1845-1849 which some historians prolonged until 1852) which lasted for several years and almost halved the population; those who did not die of hunger were lucky if the
y could leave for England or Scotland, but more massive was the migration to America
4) ‘tithes and taxes’ paid in support of the Irish Church, so the song pre-dates the Act of Disestablishment in 1869
5) the years of large-scale industrial expansion (with relative upgrading of infrastructure) began in Britain starting from 1840-50
6) John Bull is the national personification of the Kingdom of Great Britain

Paddy’s Green Shamrock Shore


Paddy’s Green Shamrock Shore

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“Paddy’s Green Shamrock Shore ” is a traditional Irish song originally from Donegal, of which several textual versions have been written for a single melody.

TUNE: Erin Shore

A typically Irish tune spread among travellers already at the end of 1700, today it is known with different titles: Shamrock shore, Erin Shore (LISTEN instrumental version of the Irish group The Corrs from Forgiven, Not Forgotten 1995), Lough Erin Shore (LISTEN to the version always instrumental of the Corrs from Unpluggesd 1999), Gleanntáin Ghlas’ Ghaoth Dobhair, Gleanntan Glas Gaoith Dobhair or The Green Glens Of Gweedor (with text written by Francie Mooney)

Standard version: Paddy’s Green Shamrock Shore

The common Paddy’s Green Shamrock Shore was first sung on an EFDSS LP(1969) by Packie Manus Byrne, now over 80 and living in Ardara Co Donegal*. He was born at Corkermore between there and Killybegs. It was taken up by Paul Brady and subsequently. However, there are longer and more local (to north Derry, Donegal) versions in Sam Henry’s Songs of the People and in Jimmy McBride’s The Flower of Dunaff Hill.” (in Mudcats ) and Sam Henry writes “Another version has been received from the Articlave district, where the song was first sung in 1827 by an Inishowen ploughman.”
The recording made by Sean Davies at Cecil Sharp House dates back to 1969 and again in the sound archives of the ITMA we find the recording sung by Corney McDaid at McFeeley’s Bar, Clonmany, Co. Donegal in 1987 (see) and also Paul Brady recorded it many times.
Kevin Conneff recorded it with the Chieftains in 1992, “Another Country” (I, II, IV, V, II)

Amelia Hogan from “Transplants: From the Old World to the New.”

Liam Ó Maonlai & Donal Lunny ( I, IV, V, II)

Dolores Keane & Paul Brady live 1988 (I, II, IV, V)

Come Irishmen all, who hear my song, your fate is a mournful tale
When your rents are behind and you’re being taxed blind and your crops have grown sickly and failed
You’ll abandon your lands,
and you’ll wash your hands of all that has come before and you’ll take to the sea to a new count-a-ree, far from the green Shamrock shore.
From Derry quay we sailed away
On the twenty-third of May
We were boarded by a pleasant crew
Bound for Amerikay
Fresh water then we did take on
Five thousand gallons or more
In case we’d run short going to New York
Far away from the shamrock shore
II (Chorus)
Then fare thee well, sweet Liza dear
And likewise to Derry town
And twice farewell to my comrades bold (boys)
That dwell on that sainted ground
If fame or fortune shall favour me
And I to have money in store
I’ll come back and I’ll wed the wee lassie I left
On Paddy’s green shamrock shore
At twelve o’clock we came in sight
Of famous Mullin Head
And Innistrochlin to the right stood out On the ocean’s bed
A grander sight ne’er met my eyes
Than e’er I saw before
Than the sun going down ‘twixt sea and sky
Far away from the shamrock shore
We sailed three days (weeks), we were all seasick
Not a man on board was free
We were all confined unto our bunks
And no-one to pity poor me
No mother dear nor father kind
To lift (hold) up my head, which was sore
Which made me think more on the lassie I left
On Paddy’s green shamrock shore
Well we safely reached the other side
in three (fifteen) and twenty days
We were taken as passengers by a man(1)
and led round in six different ways,
We each of us drank a parting glass
in case we might never meet more,
And we drank a health to Old Ireland
and Paddy’s Green Shamrock Shore

*additional first verse by Garrison White
1) It refers to the reception of immigrants who were inspected and held for bureaucratic formalities, but the sentence is not very clear. Ellis Island was used as an entry point for immigrants only in 1892. Prior to that, for approximately 35 years, New York State had 8 million immigrants transit through the Castle Garden Immigration Depot in Lower Manhattan.


This text was written by Patrick Brian Warfield, singer and multi-instrumentalist of the Irish group The Wolfe Tones. In his version the point of landing is not New York but Baltimore.
Young Dubliners

The Wolfe Tones from Across the Broad Atlantic 2005 

Lyrics: Patrick Brian Warfield 
Oh, fare thee well to Ireland
My own dear native land
It’s breaking my heart to see friends part
For it’s then that the tears do fall
I’m on my way to Americae
Will I e’er see home once more
For now I leave my own true love
And Paddy’s green shamrock shore
Our ship she lies at anchor
She’s standing by the quay
May fortune bright shine down each night
As we sail across the sea
Many ships have been lost, many lives it cost
On this journey that lies before
With a tear in my eye I’ll say goodbye
To Paddy’s green shamrock shore
So fare thee well my own true love
I’ll think of you night and day
And a place in my mind you surely will find
Although we’ll be far, far away
Though I’ll be alone far away from home
I’ll think of the good times once more
Until the day I can make my way
Back home to the shamrock shore
And now our ship is on the way
May heaven protect us all
With the winds and the sail we surely can’t fail
On this voyage to Baltimore
But my parents and friends did wave to the end
‘Til I could see them no more
I then took a chance with one last glance
At Paddy’s green shamrock shore

This version takes up the 3rd stanza of the previous version as a chorus
The High Kings

So fare thee well, my own true love
I’ll think of you night and day
Farewell to old Ireland
Good-bye to you, Bannastrant(1)
No time to look back
Facing the wind, fighting the waves
May heaven protect us all
From cold, hunger and angry squalls
Pray I won’t be lost
Wind in the sails, carry me safe
So fare thee well, my own true love
I’ll think of you night and day
A place in my mind you will surely find
Although I am so far away
And when I’m alone far away from home
I’ll think of the good times once more
Until I can make it back someday here
To Paddy’s green shamrock shore.
Out now on the ocean deep
Ship’s noise makes it hard to sleep
Tears fill up my eyes
The image of you won’t go away
New York is in sight at last
My heart, it is pounding fast
Trying to be brave
Wishing you near
By my side, a stór (2)
Until I can make it back someday here
To Paddy’s green shamrock shore

1) Banna Strand , Banna Beach, is situated in Tralee Bay County Kerry
2) my love

Shamrock shore


Emigrant Farewell

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“Farewell My Love and Remebre Me” also with the title “Our Ship Is Ready”, “The Ship Is Ready To Sail Away” or “My Heart is True”, but also “Emigrant Farewell” is the transposition in the Irish folk song of a broadside ballad entitled “Remember Me”, published in Dublin c.1867 (in the “Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads”).

The theme is that of the emigrant’s farewell  who is forced to separate from his true love; he leaves his heart in Ireland so his woman and his country become one in the memory.

In “Ulster Ballad Singer (1968)” Sarah Makem is noted: “Sarah’s melody is used quite often for songs of farewell in much the same way as the air “The Pretty Lasses of Loughrea” was used allover the country for lamentations or execution songs, (see Joyce’s Old Irish Folk Music and Song, pp 219-211). The two best-known printed versions of Sarah’s air are “Fare you well, sweet Cootehill Town” (Joyce, O.I.F.M.S., p 192) and “The Parting Glass” (Irish Street Ballads. p 69). But until such time as a system of notation is invented to record the true intervals of a folksinger’s interpretation, Sarah Makem’s version of this air must remain for study on disc or tape.”

The Boys of the Lough in Farewell and Rember Me, 1987 ( I, III, I)

Pauline Scanlon in Hush 2006 (I, III)
 La Lugh in Senex Puer 1999 (on Spotify): sad and gloomy tune on the piano with a few hints to the cello

Our ship is ready to bear(sail) away
Come comrades o’er the stormy seas
Her snow-white wings they are unfurled
And soon she will swim in a watery world
Ah, do not forget, love, do not grieve
For my heart is true and can’t deceive
My hand and heart, I will give to thee
So farewell my love and remember me
Farewell to Dublin’s hills and braes
To Killarney’s lakes and silvery seas
‘Twas many the long bright summer’s day/When we passed those hours of joy away(1)
III (3)
Farewell to you, my precious pearl
It’s my lovely dark-haired, blue-eyed girl
And when I’m on the stormy seas
When you think on Ireland, remember me
III (The Boys of the Lough )
Farewell my love as bright as pearl
my lovely dark-haired, blue-eyed girl
and when I am seal in the stormy seas
I’ll hope in Ireland, you’ll think on me
Oh, Erin dear, it grieves my heart
To think that I so soon must part
And friends so ever dear and kind
In sorrow I must leave behind
Extra Rhymes La Lugh
It’s now I must bid a long adieu
To Wicklow and its beauties too
Avoca’s braes where lovers meet
There to discourse in absence sweet
Farewell sweet Deviney, likewise the glen
The Dargle waterfall and then
The lovely scene surrounding Bray
Shall be my thoughts when far away
1) or
Where’s many the fine long summer’s day/We loitered hours of joy away

second part:  “Old Cross of Ardboe”


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Lyrics: The Banks Of Ayr by Robert Burns 1786
Tune:  Roslin Castle (aka House of Glamis) old Scottish Slow Air

The   gloomy night is gath’ring fast” or “The bonie banks of Ayr” was written by Robert Burns on the autumn of 1786 when he was 27 years old; crucial year for Burns in which he decides to embark for Jamaica in search of fortune; to pay for the trip, on July 31 he published “Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect” (also known as “The Kilmarnock Edition“), but … the unexpected success achieved with his first publication and the persuasion of his friends, it brought him to Edinburgh at the end of November.

burns 1787
Robert Burns in Edinburgh 1787, the living room of Jane Duchess of Gordon

Welcomed with benevolence in the most fashionable houses of Edinburgh, the handsome Robbie has become famous throughout Scotland, even if he was always nagged by economic problems.


The song reflects the dark thoughts of the poet, the worries of today, the fears of facing a long journey by sea and his heartfelt farewell to his beloved Scotland. “I composed this song as I conveyed my chest so far on my road to Greenock, where I was to embark in a few days for Jamaica. I meant it as my  farewell dirge to my native land.”

Le rive dell'Ayr
The banks of Ayr


Ayr is a capital harbor town of Ayrshire (south-west Scotland) located at the mouth of the river Ayr, center of the “Burns an ‘a’ that” the May festival to pay homage to the Bard of Scotland: the feast lasts a whole week and it is a succession of concerts, literary and artistic events. Several other places associated with the poet and his youthful years can be found in the Burnay National Heritage Park in Alloway. These include the Burns Cottage, the museum and the Tam o ‘Shanter Experience, as well as the Auld Alloway Kirk, the Burns monument and the Brig o’ Doon.
Around the city lies the sparsely populated Scottish countryside and beautiful landscapes: in the Aryshire region there are forty castles, many of which can be visited.


The tune is an example of the Italian influence on eighteenth century Scottish music. The tune has been attributed to James Oswald (or composed by William McGibbon and printed by James Oswald)
Charles Nicholson in his Preceptive Lessons for the Flute of 1821

Old Blind Dogs  in The World’s Room 1999 (violino e flauto) Jonny Hardie (violino) e Rory Campbell (whistle), sotto il delicato arpeggio della chitarra di Jim Malcolm

The Albanach Guitar Duo
Kate Steinbeck, (flute) · Alicia Chapman, (oboe)· Jacquelyn Bartlett, (harp)


However, there are not many versions of the song, listen to Jim Malcom (Farewell To the Banks of Ayr)
New Celeste in “It’s a new day” – 1997: the group of Glasgow made a very characteristic arrangement (the music is composed by Iain Fergus), with the moaning of the bagpipe, vibrato and melancholic, which defines the “mood” of the whole piece. On a slow battery base, delicate arrangements and touches of guitar, violin arquings, flute riffs

The gloomy night is gath’ring fast,
Loud roars the wild,  inconstant blast,
Yon murky cloud  is foul with rain,
I see it driving  o’er the plain;
The hunter now has  left the moor,
The scatt’red coveys meet secure;
While here I wander,   prest with care,
Along the lonely  banks of Ayr.
The Autumn mourns her rip’ning corn
By early Winter’s  ravage torn;
Across her placid,  azure sky,
She sees the  scowling tempest fly:
Chill runs my blood  to hear it rave;
I think upon the  stormy wave,
Where many a danger  I must dare,
Far from the bonie banks of Ayr.
‘Tis not the surging billow’s roar,
‘Tis not that fatal, deadly shore;
Tho’ death in ev’ry  shape appear,
The wretched have no  more to fear:
But round my heart  the ties are bound,
That heart transpierc’d with many a wound;
These bleed afresh,  those ties I tear,
To leave the bonie banks of Ayr.
Farewell, old Coila’s(1) hills and dales,
Her healthy moors  and winding vales;
The scenes where  wretched Fancy roves,
Pursuing past, unhappy loves!
Farewell, my  friends! farewell, my foes!
My peace with these,  my love with those:
The bursting tears  my heart declare-
Farewell, the bonie banks of Ayr!

1) Coyla is the name of Burns’ muse, identified with Scotland

The Cliff of Dooneen or Avalon?

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“The Cliff of Dooneen” (Doneen, Dooneen, Duneen) is an Irish ballad from the 1930s (or late 19th century), made famous by Planxty; it spread to Great Britain after the post-war migration, Christy Moore heard a version in 1965 by various singers (Andy Rynne, Ann Mulqueen and Mick McGuane) and made it popular in folk scene of the 70s.

Like Avalon, the Dooneen cliffs are not found in a specific place, but in the mists of myth and nostalgia. Two counties contend this location: Clare near the mouth of the Shannon and Kerry near Beal. However, it is suspected that the confusion between the counties is an attempt to advertise the cliffs of Moher, that is one of the most charming places in Ireland.
It’s an emigration song, those who leave for distant lands regret their home and want to be buried in the places loved in their youth.

(Photo: Philippe Gosseau)


According to Beal’s people (Kerry Co.) the poem was penned by Jack McAuliffe of Lixnaw who wrote the original version during a visit to his sister. Nichols Carolan from the ITMA in Dublin attests: “Dooneen Point is on the Kerry Coast, between Ballylongford and Ballybunnion at the Mouth of the River Shannon, giving excellent views of the South West of Clare, though it should be said that it is not possible to see Kilrush and Kilkee from this point as stated in verse two [Christy Moore lyrics]. This has been explained by suggesting that the song was originally located in Moveen, a few miles south west of Kilkee in Clare. The song was first recorded in Dublin in the 1960s sung by Siney Crotty who came from Kilbaha, which is on the Clare side of the Shannon. Since it’s first appearance it has gained enormous popularity. The Irish Traditional Music Archive has around one hundred and ninety commercial recordings of it.

Jack McAuliffe poem
I have traveled afar from my own native home.
Away o’er the billows, away o’er the foam I have seen many sights but no equal I’ve seen
To the old rocky slopes by the cliffs of Dooneen
I have seen many sights of Columbus fair land,
Africa and Asia so delightful and grand,
But dig me a grave were the grass it grows green
On the old rocky slopes by the cliffs of Dooneen.
How pleasant to walk on a fine summers day.
And to view the sweet cherries that will never decay,
Where the sea grass(1) and seaweed and the old carrageen(2)
All grow from the rocks by the cliffs of Dooneen.
The Sand hills of Beal (3) are glorious and grand,
And the old castle ruins looking out on the strand,
Where the hares and the rabbits are there to be seen
Making holes for their homes by the cliffs of Dooneen.
I have tracked my love’s footsteps to the boathouse of old
And the dance  (4) on the hillside where love stories are told,
Its there you will see both the lad and the colleen
Moving round by the shore of the cliffs of Dooneen
Take a view across the Shannon some sites you will see there
High rocky mountains on the south coast of Clare
The towns of Kilrush and Kilkee ever green
But theres none to compare with the cliffs of Dooneen
Farewell Dooneen, Farewell for a while, And to those kind-Hearted neighbours that I left in the isle,
May my soul never rest till it’s laid on the green
Near the old rocky slopes by the Cliffs of Dooneen

1) these sea floor plants often grow in large “meadows” that resemble grazing
2) There are various types of red algae found along the coasts of Ireland – Great Britain: the alga dulse (Palmaria palmata) and the irish moss (Chondrus crispus also called Carragheen) which, when spread out and dried in the sun, turns to white in a characteristic “blonde” color!
3) the Dingle Peninsula in the south-west of Ireland has a very indented coastline characterized by rock headlands and pristine green meadows
4) a Feile Lughnasa, a Celtic summer festival still celebrated in July


However the most accredited version of the song is the one that identifies the cliffs with the “Cliffs of Moveen” in County Clare.


Christy Moore tells in his web pageIt is a very simple piece of writing yet the combination of its lyric and music have people around the world. I have heard it sung in very different styles too. Margo recorded a “Country and Irish” version whilst Andy Rynne used to sing it in the Sean-Nós style

 Christy Moore

Quadriga Consort

Christy Moore lyrics
You may travel far from your own native  home
Far away o’er the mountains, far away o’er the foam
But of all the fine places that I’ve ever seen
there’s none to compare with the Cliffs of Dooneen
Take a view o’er the mountains, fine sights you’ll see there
You’ll see the high rocky mountains o’er the West coast of Clare
Oh the towns of Kilkee and Kilrush can be seen
From the high rocky slopes of the cliffs of Dooneen
It’s a nice place to be on a fine summer’s day
Watching all the wild flowers that ne’er do decay
Oh the hares and the loft pheasants are plain to be seen
Making homes for their young round the cliffs of Dooneen
Fare thee well to Dooneen, fare thee well for awhile
And to all the kind people I’m leaving behind
To the streams and the meadows where late I have been
And the high rocky slopes of the cliffs of Dooneen

Who knows why on the Web many write that the text is by Jack McAuliffe but then they sing the Christy Moore version !!

My Own Dear Galway Bay

Galway Bay è oggetto di diverse canzoni tradizionali irlandesi (vedi), questa dal titolo “My own dear Galway Bay” è stata scritta da Francis Arthur Fahy  (1854–1935), di Kinvara (Co. Galway) poeta e scrittore ricordato per il suo ruolo nell'”Irish literary revival” di fine Ottocento:  emigrò in Inghilterra nel 1873 andando a vivere a Clapham (Londra) dove fondò il  Southwark Literary Club (diventata l’ Irish Texts Society), per mantenere salde negli immigrati e nei loro figli la cultura irlandese.
Scrisse alcune canzoni ancora popolari su melodie tradizionali, in particolare per Galway Bay prese come riferimento la melodia “Skibbereen“; in una secondo tempo è prevalsa invece la melodia scritta da Tony Small nativo di Galway

ASCOLTA Dolores Keane (I, III, V, VI)
versione live con Dé Danann


‘Tis far away I am today
from scenes I roamed a boy,
And long ago the hour I know
I first saw Illinois;
But time nor tide nor waters wide
could wean my heart away,
For ever true it flies to you,
my old dear Galway Bay.
My chosen bride is by my side,
her brown hair silver-grey,
Her daughter Rose as like her grows
as April dawn to day.
Our only boy, his mother’s joy,
his father’s pride and stay;
With gifts like these I’d live at ease,
were I near Galway Bay.
Oh, grey and bleak,
by shore and creek,
the rugged rocks abound,
But sweet and green
the grass between,
as grows on Irish ground,
So friendship fond,
all wealth beyond,
and love that lives always,
Bless each poor home
beside your foam,
my dear old Galway Bay.
A prouder man I’d walk the land
in health and peace of mind,
If I might toil and strive and moil,
nor cast one thought behind,
But what would be the world to me,
its wealth and rich array,
If memory I lost of thee,
my own dear Galway Bay.
Had I youth’s blood
and hopeful mood
and heart of fire once more,
For all the gold the world might hold
I’d never quit your shore,
I’d live content whate’er God sent
with neighbours old and gray,
And lay my bones, ‘neath churchyard stones,
beside you, Galway Bay.
The blessing of a poor old man
be with you night and day,
The blessing of a lonely man
whose heart will soon be clay;
‘Tis all the Heaven I’ll ask of God
upon my dying day,
My soul to soar for evermore
above you,
Galway Bay.
Traduzione italiano Cattia Salto
Oggi sono molto lontano dai luoghi dei miei vagabondaggi giovanili,
ed è da molto tempo che vidi
l’Illinois per la prima volta;
ma nè il tempo, la marea o il vasto mare potranno disabituare il mio cuore
perchè per sempre devoto a te volerà,
mia cara vecchia Baia di Galway
La sposa che ho scelto mi è accanto
i capelli castani grigio- argento, sua figlia Rose cresce come lei, così (è) l’alba d’Aprile fino al giorno (1), il nostro unico ragazzo, la gioia di sua madre,  l’orgoglio di suo padre e sostegno; con regali come questi vivrei tranquillo se fossi vicino alla Baia di Galway
Oh grige e brulle
dalla spiaggia al torrente
le rocce aspre abbondano,
ma fresca e verde
l’erba in mezzo
cresce come sul suolo irlandese,
così l’amicizia fedele
oltre ogni ricchezza
e l’amore che vive sempre (2).
Benedici ogni povera casa
davanti alle tue onde
mia cara vecchia baia di Galway
Da uomo prudente comminavo sulla terra, in salute e in pace
se potessi sgobbare, darci dentro e faticare, 
incapace di pensare al passato! Ma che valore avrebbe il mondo per me, con la sua ricchezza sconfinata, se perdessi il ricordo di te
la mia cara Baia di galway
Se avessi il sangue giovane
e la speranza
e ancora un cuore di fuoco
per tutto l’oro che il mondo potrebbe contenere, non lascerei mai la tua riva
per vivere contento ovunque dio mi mandi e con i vicini vecchi e grigi
riposeranno le mie ossa sotto le pietre del cimitero
accanto a te Baia di Galway
La benedizione di un povero vecchio
sarà con te notte e giorno
La benedizione di un uomo solo
il cui cuore diventerà presto terra;
è questo il paradiso che chiederò a Dio
nel giorno della mia morte
la mia anima che voli per sempre
su di te
Baia di Galway

1) se ho ben interpretato il paragone Rose cresce come la luce del sole nell’alba del mese d’aprile (primavera)  fino alla sua pienezza del mattino.
2) oppure “away”: se ho ben colto il senso della frase l’amicizia e l’amore sono paragonati all’erba verde che cresce nonostante le asprezze e le difficoltà della vita


Galway Bay

“Galway bay” è una canzone irlandese che descrive tutti i sentimenti tipici di una “emigration song”, con il protagonista prossimo alla vecchiaia che esprime il desiderio di ritornare in patria per essere seppellito accanto ai suoi cari nella terra tanto amata.
La canzone fu scritta nel XX secolo da Arthur Colahan medico di mestiere ma musicista nell’animo.
Arthur Colahan (1884-1952) era nato a Enniskillen ma visse a Galway dove esercitò la professione di medico; tuttavia dopo la guerra (1918) si trasferì in Inghilterra a Leicester come specialista neurologico. Aveva già conseguito una laurea in lettere prima di dedicarsi alla medicina ed era un musicista per diletto: scrisse e compose anche altre popolari canzoni (Maccushla Mine, Asthoreen Bawn, Until God’s Day, The Kylemore Pass, The Claddagh Ring) che si divertiva suonare e cantare in famiglia e tra gli amici.  Si ritiene che Colahan abbia scritto la canzone nel 1927 poco dopo la morte di uno dei suoi fratelli, annegato nella baia.
La maggior parte delle canzoni che componeva rimanevano nella sua testa ma di questa scrisse la partitura nel 1947 poco prima che Bing Crosby la registrasse.
E’ una di quelle melodie zuccherose e sentimentali che andavano di moda ai tempi di Bing Crosby e che spopolò in tutto il mondo quando sempre Crosby la cantò nel film “The Quiet Man”, 1952.  Nei crediti della canzone che compaiono nei titoli di coda del film viene riconosciuto solo l’arrangiatore Victor Young e non il compositore (guarda caso Colahan morì prima che la sua canzone “Galway bay” raggiungesse il successo mondiale).
Arthur era egli stesso “un uomo tranquillo” che non cercava meriti e riconoscimenti e che alla sua morte fu sepolto nel cimitero di Galway sotto un’anonima croce, in una fossa comune. Solo nel 2007 la cittadina scrisse il suo nome sulla tomba.
ASCOLTA Bing Crosby live Dublino 1966

Celtic Woman

Johnny Cash

If you ever go
across the sea to Ireland,
Then maybe at the closing
of your day [1] ,
You will sit and watch the moon
rise over claddagh [2] ,
And see the sun go down
on Galway Bay [3] .
Just to hear again
the ripple  of the trout stream,
The women in the meadow
making hay.
Just to sit beside a turf fire
in the cabin,
And watch the barefoot gosoons [4]
at their play.
For the breezes blowin’
o’er the sea from Ireland
Are perfumed
by the heather as they blow
And the women in the uplands
diggin’ praties [5]
Speak a language that the strangers [6] do not know.
Yet the strangers came
and tried to teach us their way.
They scorned us just for
bein’ what we are.
But they might as well go
chasing after moon beams,
Or light a penny candle [7]
from a star.
And if there’s is going to be
a life hereafter,
And somehow I am sure
there’s going to be,
I will ask my God to let me
make my heaven,
In that dear land
across the Irish sea.
Traduzione italiano * Cattia Salto
Se mai andrai
oltre il mare in Irlanda,
allora forse alla fine
della tua vita
starai a osservare la luna
sorgere sulla spiaggia
e vedrai il sole che tramonta
sulla Baia di Galway
Solo per sentire ancora
il mormorio del ruscello pescoso,
le donne nel prato
a raccogliere il fieno .
Solo per sederti davanti al fuoco
della torba in un capanno
e osservare i ragazzi a piedi nudi
nei loro giochi .
Perché le brezze che soffiano
sul mare dall’Irlanda
arrivano profumate
e le donne sui terrazzamenti
che estirpano le patate
parlano una lingua che gli stranieri
non capiscono.
Eppure gli stranieri, venuti per cercare di insegnarci le loro usanze,
ci hanno disprezzato solo
perché siamo quel che siamo.
Tanto vale
inseguire i raggi della luna
o accendere una candela scadente
da una stella!
E se poi ci sarà
una vita nell’Altro mondo,
non so come ma sono sicuro
che ci sarà,
io chiederò al mio dio di lasciarmi
costruire il paradiso
in quella cara terra
al di là del mare d’Irlanda.

tratta da qui
1) esplicito riferimento alla vecchiaia e all’appressarsi della morte
2) Claddagh in gaelico significa spiaggia, da cui prese il nome un piccolo villaggio di pescatori di Galway: qui ha avuto origine il tipico anello di fidanzamente irlandese con due mani che tengono un cuore incoronato. Il Claddagh Ring passava da madre alla figlia primogenita per generazioni, a ricordo delle origini della famiglia. Il villaggio originario è stato raso al suolo negli anni trenta per lasciare il posto all’edilizia popolare.
3) Galway Bay sulla costa occidentale dell’Irlanda, una delle maggiori baie dell’isola, si estende per le coste delle contee di Galway e del Clare, un’insenatura protetta dal mare atlantico dalle isole di Aran. Centro dell’autentica cultura irlandese definito il ‎‎“il luogo più irlandese, in Irlanda.”: la galway hooker è nata qui dallo scafo nero e vele color ruggine è la barca dei pescatori tipica di Galway.
4) dall’irlandese garsún (francese antico per garçon)
5) letteralmente “che zappano le patate” -pratie è il termine irlandese per patata-
6) Crosby cambiò Inglesi in stranieri, per non alimentare polemiche politiche
7) letteralmente candela da un penny, cioè per esprimerla in italiano “candela da quattro soldi”, una candela di poco valore


Ed ecco la versione comica di Tommy Makem
ASCOLTA Clancy Brothers & Tommy Makem

Maybe someday I’ll go back
again to Ireland
If my dear old wife
would only pass away
She nearly has my heart broke
with her naggin’
She’s got a mouth as big
as Galway Bay
See her drinking sixteen pints
of Pabst Blue Ribbon
And then she can walk home
without a sway
If the sea was beer
instead of salty water
She’d live and die
in Galway Bay
See her drinking sixteen pints
at Padgo Murphy’s
The barman says
I think it’s time to go
Well she doesn’t try
to speak to him in Gaelic
In a language that the clergy
do not know
On her back she has tattooed
a map of Ireland
And when she takes her bath
on Saturday
She rubs the Sunlight soap
around by Claddagh
Just to watch the suds
flow down by Galway Bay
Traduzione italiano di Cattia Salto
Forse un giorno
ritornerò ancora in Irlanda
se solo la mia cara vecchia moglie
si decidesse a morire,
mi ha quasi spezzato il cuore
con le sue lamentele,
ha una bocca grande
come la Baia di Galway
La vedi bere 16 pinte
al Pabst Blue Ribbon
e poi ritornare a casa
senza vacillare,
se il mare fosse birra
invece di acqua salata
vivrebbe e morirebbe
nella Baia di Galway
La vedi bere 16 pinte
al pub di Padgo Murphy
il barista dice
“Credo sia il tempo di andare”
Beh lei non cerca
di parlagli in gaelico
in una lingua che il clero
non conosce.
Sulla sua schiena ha tatuata
la mappa dell’Irlanda
e quando si lava
di sabato
si strofina il sapone Sunlight
sulla spiaggia
solo per vedere la schiuma
versarsi nella Baia di Galway



Love is pleasing

“Love is pleasing” ma anche “Love is teasing” è una canzone tradizionale diffusa nelle isole britanniche e nel nord-america che era di moda nei folk club degli anni 60-70. Gli studiosi ritengono che i versi siano parte di una serie di “frasi fatte” provenienti dal grande calderone delle ballate tradizionali, così svincolati da una narrazione esprimono comunque un sentimento, quello dell’amore tradito (o dell’amore incostante).
The words of “Love is Teasing” resemble those found in three similar songs, “O Waly, Waly,” “The Water is Wide,” and “Down in the Meadows” and all of these can be traced back to the ballad “Jamie Douglas” (Child 204). In “Jamie Douglas,” a bride has been falsely accused of infidelity and is sent back to her father with an aching heart. All of the shorter songs have whittled away the narrative over time leaving nothing but an emotional core. Various versions journeyed back and forth between Ireland, Britain, and North America, and singers often augment whatever verses they have learned with others from a common stock of associated “floating” verses. (tratto da qui)


ASCOLTA Jean Ritchie imparò la canzone nel 1946 da Peggy Staunton,  irlandese emigrata a New York

ASCOLTA Rhiannon Giddens in Tomorrow Is My Turn, 2015 che così scrive nelle note “I first heard Peggy Seeger sing this and immediately fell in love with it – as I found earlier recordings I got caught by Jean Ritchie’s version, with her idiosyncratic and hypnotic dulcimer playing. This is the ancient warning from woman to woman about the perfidies of man.

Love is teasing, love is pleasing
And love’s a pleasure when first it is new
But as love grows older it still grows colder
And fades away like the morning dew
Come all you fair maids, now take a warning
Don’t ever heed what a young man say
He’s like a star on some foggy morning When you think he’s near he is far away
I left my father, I left my mother
I left my brothers and sisters too
I left my home and kind relations
I left them all just to follow you.
Traduzione italiano di Cattia Salto
L’amore è un tormento, l’amore è un piacere e l’amore è piacevole quando è appena nuovo,
ma man mano che cresce l’amore si raffredda
e svanisce come rugiada all’alba
Venite tutte qui ragazze, e prendete il mio avvertimento: non date mai retta a quello che un giovanotto dice,  lui è come la stella in un mattino nebbioso, quando lo credete vicino, si è allontanato
Lasciai mio padre, lasciai mia madre
lasciai le mie sorelle e anche i miei fratelli
lasciai tutti gli amici e la mia fede
li lasciai tutti per seguirti


Pur nella standardizzazione del genere il canto si suddivide in due filoni, nel primo una donna (ma anche un uomo) con il cuore a pezzi, rimasta senza punto di riferimento, sceglie di emigrare per l’America.
ASCOLTA The Dubliners

ASCOLTA Marianne Faithfull & Chieftains live

I wish, I wish, I wish in vain
I wish I was a youth again
But a youth again I can never be
Till apples grow
on an ivy tree
I left me father, I left me mother
I left all my sisters
and brothers too
I left all my friends and me own religion
I left them all for to follow you
But the sweetest apple is the soonest rotten
And the hottest love is the soonest cold
And what can’t be cured love
has to be endured love (1)
And now I am bound for America
Oh love is pleasin’ and love is teasin’
And love is a pleasure when first it’s new
But as it grows older sure the love grows colder
And it fades away like the morning dew
And love and porter makes a young man older
And love and whiskey makes him old and grey
And what can’t be cured love has to be endured love
And now I am bound for America
Traduzione italiano di Cattia Salto
Vorrei, vorrei, vorrei ma non posso
vorrei essere di nuovo giovane
ma non potrò mai essere di nuovo giovane finchè le mele cresceranno sull’edera
Lasciai mio padre, lasciai mia madre
lasciai le mie sorelle e anche i miei fratelli
lasciai tutti gli amici e la mia fede
li lasciai tutti per seguirti
Ma la mela più dolce è quella che per prima marcisce e l’amore più appassionato è il primo che si raffredda, e quello ciò che non può guarire dall’amore, deve essere rafforzato dall’amore e ora sono in partenza per l’America
L’amore è un piacere e l’amore è un tormento e l’amore è piacevole quando è appena nuovo
ma man mano che cresce l’amore si raffredda
e svanisce come rugiada all’alba
Amore e birra fanno di un giovane un uomo
e amore e whiskey lo fanno invecchiare e incanutire
e quello ciò che non può guarire dall’amore, deve essere rafforzato dall’amore e ora sono in partena per l’America

1) letteralmente: e quello che non può essere amore curato deve essere amore sopportato
La seconda verisone è un lamento più tipicamente femminile.
ASCOLTA Karan Casey live

I never thought my love would leave me
Until that morning when he stepped in
Well, he sat down and I sat beside him
And then our troubles, they did begin
Oh love is teasing and love is pleasing
And love is a pleasure when first it’s new
But love grows older and love grows colder
And it fades away like the morning dew
There is an alehous in yon town
And it’s there my love goes and he sits down
He takes a strange girl (1) upon his knee
And he tells to her what he once told to me
I wish my father had never whistled(2)
And I wish my mother had never sung
I wish the cradle had never rocked me
And I wish my life, it had not begun
Traduzione italiano di Cattia Salto
Non avrei mai creduto che il mio amore mi avrebbe lasciata
fino a quel mattino quando entrò
beh si sedette e io mi misi accanto a lui
e allora i nostri guai iniziarono.
L’amore è un piacere e l’amore è un tormento e l’amore è piacevole quando è appena nuovo,
ma man mano che cresce l’amore si raffredda
e svanisce come rugiada all’alba
C’è una birreria in quella città
ed è dove il mio amore va a sedersi,
si prende una puttana sulle ginocchia
e le dice ciò che un tempo diceva a me
Vorrei che mio padre non avesse mai suonato il flauto
e che mia mamma non avesse mai cantato
vorrei che la culla non mi avesse mai cullato
e che la mia vita non fosse mai cominciata

1) stange girl non è solo una ragazza strana ma un eufemismo per prostituta
2) i genitori hanno fatto sesso



“‘Twas pretty to be in Ballinderry” o semplicemente “Ballinderry” è una canzone del Nord d’Irlanda poco conosciuta: la poesia scritta da Alfred Perceval Graves è un lament in cui una fanciulla piange la morte del suo Phelim che voleva emigrare in America ma la nave su cui si è imbarcato ha fatto naufragio. Il testo fu pubblicato con musica arrangiata da Charles Villiers Stanford nella raccolta “Sing of Old Ireland” sulla scia dell’Irish revival e il gusto antiquario delle antiche melodie “celtiche” : la melodia originale proviene dalle trascrizioni di Edward Bunting ed era popolare già nel Settecento nelle campagne delle contee di Down e Antrim.
Bunting scrive in “Ancient Music of Ireland” (1840):
(Ballinderry) has been a favorite performance from time immemorial with the peasantry of the counties of Down and Antrim, the words being sung by one person while the rest of the party chant the cronan (chorus) in consonance…..There are numerous other sets of words sung to Ballinderry; they are all of a very rustic character and uniformly refer to localities along the rivers Bann and Lagan such as
‘T is pretty to be in Ballinderry,
‘T is pretty to be in Magheralin etc
‘T is pretty to be in Ballinderry,
‘T is pretty to be at the Cash of Toome etc

Queste varie versioni testuali furono trascritte fin dagli inizi dell’Ottocento e una sorta di sequel alla poesia di Graves venne scritto nel 1880 con il titolo di “The return of Phelimy Hyland” da James N. Richardson .


Alfred Perceval Graves traspone in inglese un tipico keening irlandese, un’antica arte del pianto e del canto funebre derivato dalle tradizioni gaeliche.
Ballinderry è un distretto della costa occidentale del Lough Neagh il cuore azzurro della provincia Nord d’Irlanda, l’Ulster (da Lennymore Bay e Sandy Bay si raggiunge l’isoletta di Ram).
Erano signori gli O’Neill di Ballinderry che risiedevano nel castello di Portmore costruito nel 1661 o 1664 da Lord Conway (sulle fondamenta di una antica fortezza) tra Lough Beg e Lough Neagh; la tenuta era ricca di alberi centenari e di bellissimi boschi (vedi Bonny Portmore)


L’isoletta oggi disabitata,  fu sede nel Medioevo di un monastero per poi essere venduta ai Conti O’Neill; un grazioso cottage estivo con il tetto in paglia fu edificato dal primo conte Charles O’Neill agli inizi dell’Ottocento proprio nelle vicinanze dei ruderi del monastero, unitamente a una casetta per i custodi; sembra che con la bassa marea l’isola fosse raggiungibile via terra percorrendo una strada pavimentata rialzata (i cui resti sono ancora visibili).
L’isola è un luogo ameno in cui passeggiare rigoglioso di alberi (molti dei quali piantati proprio dal conte) e ricco di roseti, feconda e bella come un angolo di paradiso; sull’isola vivevano due custodi Jane e Robert Cardwell, una sorta di geni tutelari che conducevano una semplice ed eremitica vita in simbiosi con l’isola e le sue risorse: si trasferirono sull’isola nel 1883 e ci rimasero fino alla fine, Robert morì nel 1929 e Jane nel 1933 alla veneranda età di 102 anni.

Ecco come appariva il cottage a metà ottocento

e come appare oggi

ASCOLTA The Cottars in “Made In Cape Breton,” 2002 che tenerezza sentire cantare una voce così fresca e giovane! (all’epoca del loro primo cd erano tutti degli adolescenti)

‘Twas pretty to be in Ballinderry (1)
‘Twas pretty to be in Aghalee (2)
Still prettier to be on bonny Ram’s Island
Sitting forever beneath a tree (3)
Ochone, ochone! Ochone, ochone!(4)
II (5)
For often I sailed to bonny Ram’s Island
Arm in arm with Phelim, my diamond (6)
And he would whistle and I would sing
And we would make the whole island ring
“I’m going,” he said, “from bonny Ram’s Island
Out and across the deep blue sea
And if in your heart you love me, Mary
Open your arms at last to me”
‘Twas happy to be in little Ballinderry
now ‘tis sad as sad can be;
For the ship that sailed with Phelimy Diamond
Is lost for ever beneath the sea.
Traduzione di Cattia Salto
Era bello stare a Ballinderry
era bello stare a Aghalee
e ancora meglio stare nella bella isola di Ram
seduti per sempre sotto ad un albero
Ahimè, ahimè, Ahimè, ahimè
Perchè spesso navigavo verso la bella isola di Ram
tra le braccia di Phelim, il mio gioiello
e lui avrebbe suonato il flauto e io avrei cantato
e noi avremmo fatto il giro di tutta l’isola
“Vado via- disse lui – dalla bella isola di Ram
per attraversare il mare profondo
e se nel tuo cuore mi ami Mary
abbracciami un’ultima volta”
Era bello stare a Ballinderry
ora invece è molto triste
perchè la nave che salpò con Phelimy Diamond
è perduta per sempre nell’oceano

1) dal gaelico Baile an Doire = ‘town of the oak wood’
2) i Clancy Brothers dicono Aucholee
3) il verso di Graves dice “Trysting under the ivy tree!”
4) lamento in gaelico equivalente ad Alas
5) la strofa nella versione di Graves dice
“For often I roved in little Ram’s Island,
Side by side with Phelimy Hyland,
And still he’d court me and I’d be coy,
Though at heart I loved him, my handsome boy!”
6) Phelimy Hyland probabilmente storpiato in “Phelimy Diamond.” invece di diamond i Clancy Brothers dicono demon; scritto anche come Phelim my love,



Il titolo è un po’ generico e indica diversi canti d’emigrazione in questo, più noto come “Old Cross of Ardboe”, vengono ricordate con nostalgia varie località dell’Ulster intorno al Lough Neagh, un lago delle fate secondo la gente d’Irlanda.
Il lago, uno dei più vasti delle Isole Britanniche,  è incastonato nel centro dell’Irlanda del Nord, ricco di isolette e dalle rive a canneto è rinomato per la pesca di trote e anguille.


Secondo il mito Finn MacCool (il gigante irlandese campione dell’Ulster) per fermare il suo nemico scozzese, raccolse una manciata di terra e la scagliò contro l’avversario in fuga, mancandolo. La terra che ricadde in mare divenne l’Isola di Mann mentre il buco lasciato nel terreno si trasformò nel lago di Neagh.

Il testo in otto strofe è stato scritto dal poeta John Canavan di Killycolpy, (1862-1921) con il titolo “The Emigrants Farewell”, a cui il violinista locale Johnny Mooney ha aggiunto la melodia; una versione più moderna è stata poi ridotta e adattata a sole quattro strofe (vedi). La melodia  richiama vagamente “The Lakes of Pontchantrain”

Il poeta descrive con nostalgia le rive sud-ovest del lago Neagh nella contea di Tyrone di cui è originario, ed esprime il desiderio di essere sepolto nel piccolo cimitero dell’Abbazia di San Colman nei pressi di Ardboe ai piedi della Croce Celtica medievale scolpita nella pietra.

ASCOLTA Kate Crossan & Kitty Kitchen
ASCOLTA Gemma Hasson


Fare ye well my native green clad hills
Fare ye well my shamrock plain
Ye verdant banks of sweet Lough Neagh(1)
And ye silvery (2) winding streams
Though far from  home in green Tyrone
My Flora first I strayed (3)
I adore you Killcolpy(4)
Where I spent my boyhood days.
Shall I ne’er behold Shane’s Castle(5) bold
Or gaze on Mazzereene
Shall my cot e’re land on the banks of Bann(6)
Coney Island(7) or Roskeen.
Shall I ever stray by the Washing bay(8)
The weary trout to coy
Or set (cast) my line in the evening fine
Round the shores of green Mountjoy(9).
My friends out here in America
Have all that there hearts desire
My pockets filled with dollar bills
I am dressed in the grand attire
but I would give it all for one country ball
At home by the old hearthstone
In a cabin near Lough Neagh so dear
In my own dear native home (land).
And I know, alas long years have passed
And I’ll toast that beautiful isle,
And short or long in that land of song
A star of peace (10) may smile
May plenty bloom from the Bann to Toome(11)
And the shamrock verdant grow
Green o’er my grave by Lough Neagh’s wave
or the Old Cross of Ardboe (12).
Traduzione italiana Cattia Salto
Addio mie natie colline ricoperte di verde
addio mia pianura di trifoglio
voi verdeggianti rive del placido Lough Neagh(1)
e voi tortuosi ruscelli d’argento(2)!
Anche se sono lontano dalla mia casa nella verde Tyrone, dalla mia Flora che per primo abbandonai (3),
io ti amo Killycolpy (4) dove trascorsi i giorni della mia fanciullezza.
Potrò mai rivedere il Castello di Shane (5)
o contemplare Massereene?
Mi potrò accampare sulle rive del Bann (6),
a Coney Island (7) o Roskeen?
Potrò mai andare in giro per la Baia di Washing (8)
ad afferrare le trote stremate
o gettare la lenza nelle belle serate
sulle verdi rive nei dintorni di Mountjoy (9)?
I miei amici via da qui, l’America,
hanno tutto ciò che il cuore desidera,
e io con le tasche piene di banconote da un dollaro sono vestito in gran tiro,
eppure darei tutto in cambio di un ballo popolare, a casa vicino al vecchio focolare, in un capanno nei pressi dell’amato Lough Neagh, proprio nella mia  terra natia.
Purtroppo, tanti anni sono passati
e io brinderò a quella bell’isola,
che  prima o poi in quella terra di canzoni
una stella di pace (10) possa sorridere,
che possa fiorire in abbondanza la ginestra da Bann a Toome (11)
e il trifoglio rigoglioso crescere
sempreverde sopra la mia tomba accanto all’onda del Lough Neagh
o della vecchia Croce di Ardboe (12)

1) Il Lough Neagh è il più grande lago d’acqua dolce in Irlanda, tocca cinque delle sei contee che compongono l’Irlanda del Nord e si trova quasi al suo centro; nella poesia ne rappresenta il cuore.
2) nel senso di acque cristalline
3) oppure “Aye far from you I’ve strayed”
4) Killycolpy è il paese natale del poeta
5) le rovine del castello si trovano sulle rive nord-est del Lago Neagh
6) il fiume Bann (fiume bianco) è il fiume più lungo dell’Irlanda del Nord e in mezzo si allarga a formare il Lough Neagh, rinomato per la pesca del salmone, trote e anguille
7) un isolotto ricco di boschi nel Lago Neagh
8) Washing bay è una piccola baia che si trova nel lato sud-ovest del Lago Neagh, nella conta di Tyrone
9) piccolo villaggio con relativo castello sulla collina che sovrasta il Lago Neagh
10) oppure “May the star of freedom smile”
11) Toome è un piccolo paese nella punta nord-ovest del lago Lago Neagh
12) La Croce si trova ad Ardboe nella contea di Tyrone: si tratta della prima Grande Croce celtica eretta nell’Ulster, alta quasi 20 metri con scene dalla Bibbia scolpite, (risalente al IX o X sec), che segna il luogo su cui si ergeva un monastero fondato nel 590 da San Colman. Nel tempo accanto ai ruderi della vecchia abbazia è sorto un piccolo cimitero. Il sito era probabilmente un recinto sacro alle precedenti divinità ed è ancora visitato l’albero dei desideri ( Pin tree o Coin tree (ma anche Wish tree) sebbene quello precedente sia andato distrutto nel 1998: alla stregua del pozzo dei desideri, l’albero è un collettore di offerte e richieste alla divinità (o alle fate) e le monete vengono conficcate nella corteccia (vedi)